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Environmental Cooperation – Evaluation Articles 1992-2004

Below is a list of all evaluation articles published in the 11 editions of the Yearbook of International Co-operation on Environment and Development (YBICED) that were published by the Fridtjof Nansen Institute in the period 1992-2004, first in cooperation with Oxford University Press (1992 - 1997, as Green Globe Yearbook), later with Earthscan.

In addition to the titles, this list includes – from the 1994 Edition – summaries and links to the full text of the articles, in PDF format. Articles from the 1992 and 1993 Editions do not have summaries, and the articles are not available online.

1992 >   1993 >   1994 >   1995 >   1996 >   1997 >
1998/1999 >   1999/2000 >   2001/2002 >   2002/2003 >   2003/2004 >

Green Globe Yearbook (GGY) 1992

Protection of the Global Climate: Ecological Utopia or Just a Long Way to Go?, by Helge Ole Bergesen and Anne Kristin Sydnes (Fridtjof Nansen Institute, Norway)

Stratospheric Ozone Depletion: Can we Save the Sky?, by Alan Miller and Irving Mintzer (Center for Global Change, University of Maryland, USA)

Dumping on Our World Neighbours: The International Trade in Hazardous Wastes, and the Case for an Immediate Ban on All Hazardous Waste Exports from Industrialized to Less-Industrialized Countries, by Jim Puckett (Greenpeace International, Amsterdam, the Netherlands)

Protecting the Frozen South, by Olav Schram Stokke (Fridtjof Nansen Institute, Norway)

Trade with Endangered Species, by Joanna Boddens Hosang (IUCN-The World Conservation Fund, Switzerland)

The Global Challenges of Aids, by Christer Jönsson (University of Lund, Sweden)

Democracy, Development, and Environmental Sustainability, by Jeanette Hartmann (Department of Sociology, University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania)

Indigenous People's Role in Achieving Sustainability, by Russel Barsh (Mikmaq Grand Council, Canada)

The Inside Out, the Outside In, Pros and Cons of Foreign Influence on Brazilian Environmentalism, by Ricardo Arnt (Environmental journalist, Brazil)

Energy for Sustainable Development in the Third World, by Amulya K. N. Reddy (International Energy Initiative, Bangalore, India)

Green Globe Yearbook (GGY) 1993

International Efforts to Combat Marine Pollution: Achievements of North Sea Co-operation and Challenges Ahead, by Steinar Andresen, Jon Birger Skjærseth, and Jørgen Wettestad (Fridtjof Nansen Institute, Norway)

Biological Diversity in a North-South Context, by Cary Fowler (NORAGRIC-Norwegian Centre for International Agricultural Development)

International Controversy over Sustainable Forestry, by Vandana Shiva (Research Foundation for Science, Technology and Natural Resource Policy, Dehra Dun, India)

Can GATT Survive the Environmental Challenge?, by David Pearce (CSERGE-Centre for Social and Economic Research on the Global Environment, UK)

Has the World Bank Greened?, by Amulya K. N. Reddy (International Energy Initiative, Bangalore, India)
In his article, Amulya K. N. Reddy questions the World Bank's claim to have achieved a major re-orientation towards "greening", pointing to a number of environmentally questionable projects recently supported by the bank, such as the Sardar Sarovar Dam project in India and the Tropical Forestry Action Plan. According to the author, the World Bank often fails to consult local authorities and NGOs, and sometimes even acts in violation of its own environmental and social policies. While remaining critical of World Bank practices, the author concedes that the bank has taken many steps to develop and implement environmental concerns, particularly in the last five years, and that the "greening" of the World Bank should be considered a process rather than an event.

Non-governmental Organizations at UNCED: Another Successful Failure?, by Elin Enge and Runar I. Malkenes (Norwegian Campaign for Environment and Development)

Non-governmental Organizations: The Third Force in the Third World, by Bill Hinchberger (Center for Latin American Studies, University of California, Berkeley, USA)

International Business and Sustainable Development, by Alex Trisoglio (International Academy of the Environment, Geneva, Switzerland)

Green Globe Yearbook (GGY) 1994

International Environmental Treaty Secretariats: Stage-Hands or Actors?, by Rosemary Sandford (Department of Urban Studies and Planning, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA)
In her article, Sandford discusses the role of the secretariats in implementing international environmental agreements, including a discussion of the possibility of playing a more autonomous, activist role. The article is based on analysis of the Ramsar, World Heritage, CITES, Ozone and Basel Convention Secretariats.
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Deep Seabed Mining and the Environment: Consequences, Perceptions, and Regulations, by Jan Magne Markussen (Fridtjof Nansen Institute, Norway)
In his article, Markussen analyses the evolving UN regime for protection of the deep seabed. The author emphasizes the United States' leading role in introducing environmental concerns and standards into deep seabed activities. The author also points out that the decision to remove environmental considerations from the list of hard-core issues to be discussed in the Law of the Sea Convention deliberations may not necessarily be negative for the deep seabed environment. Actual exploitation is still quite some time into the future, and there are still so many unknowns when it comes to the deep seabed environment, that it may well be preferable to await further knowledge before deciding on environmental standards for human activities on the deep seabed.
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International Co-operation to Prevent Oil Spills at Sea: Not Quite the Success it Should Be, by Gerard Peet (AIDEnvironment, Amsterdam, the Netherlands)
In his article, Gerard Peet discusses how far the international community has come in solving specific environmental problems, trying to identify what are the main obstacles to effective international solutions, and what should be done to overcome these problems. While conceding that it may not be the most serious type of marine pollution, Peet has chosen to use oil pollution prevention and combating as an example, as this "high-profile pollutant" represents one of the most longstanding areas of international environmental co-operation. Based on his analysis, the author concludes that international co-operation has so far not been able to deal efficiently with oil pollution. However, the main problem is not the international co-operation in itself, but rather the inadequate application of its results by national governments.
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Combating Desertification: Encouraging Local Action within a Global Framework, by Camilla Toulmin (IIED-International Institute for Environment and Development)
In her article, Camilla Toulin starts by outlining the desertification problem, explaining the distinction between terms such as drought, desiccation and degradation, and how the term desertification is often misapplied. She then outlines the incidence and implication of desertification on a global level, before discussing the obstacles to effective international solutions. She discusses the reasons why international solutions have not brought considerable success, and indicates that global, regional and national plans are too often too far from reality.
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Combating the Illegal Timber Trade: Is there a Role for ITTO?, by Clare Barden (World Wide Fund for Nature, UK)
In her article, Claire Barden discusses the role of the International Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO) in the combat against illegal timber trade. She points out that in spite of the serious environmental and social consequences of the highly profitable illegal timber trade, international contributions toward eradicating malpractices have been negligible, but believes that there is a considerable potential form expanding the international role. The author claims that ITTO has failed to deal satisfactory with social and environmental aspects of sustainable forest management. Consequently, a change in name and focus is suggested, to International Timber Trade Organization, in order to widen geographic focus from tropical timber to include also temperate timber, and to shift topical focus towards trade issues, leaving the conservation issues to other IGOs and NGOs.
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The Problem of Migratory Species in International Law, by Cyrille de Klemm (International Council of Environmental Law, Bonn, Germany)
In his article, Cyrille de Klemm makes an overview of the many international problems caused by migratory species, including terrestrial species, many types of fish and marine mammals, and birds. He also makes an overview of relevant international conventions, and points out the existing lack of co-ordination between them.
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International Co-operation to Promote Nuclear Reactor Safety in the Former USSR and Eastern Europe, by Michael Herttrich, Rolf Janke, and Peter Kelm (GRS-German Gesellschaft für Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit)
In their article, Herttrich, Janke and Kelm first outline the nuclear industry of Eastern Europe and Russia and its history. It then goes on to analysing the attempts to set up an east-west regime for nuclear safety, the urgency of which was highlighted by the 1986 Chernobyl disaster. The authors maintain that the main obstacle to the development of more-stringent international obligations for nuclear power is that countries with nuclear industries fear a more complicated decision-making process and political influence from countries that do not use or that oppose nuclear power. Acknowledging that nuclear power is going to be around for many years to come - also in eastern Europe - these are fears that need to be taken seriously by the West.
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The Commission on Sustainable Development: Paper Tiger or Agency to Save the Earth?, by Martin Khor (Third World Network, Penang, Malaysia)
From the viewpoint of an environmental NGO, Martin Khor asks whether it is worth the time and efforts to engage in following the activities of the Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD). On the one hand, the author commends the CSD for its openness, and states that there are no other alternatives for co-operation on the international level. On the other hand, the author points out that there will only be actions and solutions on an international level when political will has been built up at the national level. Therefore, he concludes, environmental and developmental NGOs should concentrate on working mainly at the local and national level.
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International Attitudes towards Environment and Development, by Riley E. Dunlap (Washington State University, Pullmann, USA)
In his article, Riley E. Dunlap makes an overview of survey-based research on individual attitudes towards environment and development in both developed and developing countries. His results demonstrate the variations in attitudes both across nations and between nations, and also show the high degree of concern, not only in developed countries, but in poorer countries as well.
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An Overview of Follow-up of Agenda 21 at the National Level, by Alicia Bárcena (Earth Council, Costa Rica)
In her article, Alicia Bárcena discusses the follow-up of the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in Rio de Janeiro, and argues that for successful sustainable development, the culture, values and interests of the people must be geared in its direction. Aid and governmental action are not sufficient to solve the problems. People are most important and effective force in the attempt to achieve sustainable development.
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Promoting International Transfer of Environmentally Sound Technologies: The Case for National Incentive Schemes, by Calestous Juma (African Centre for Technology Studies, Kenya)
In his article, Juma analyses the discussions on transfer of environmental technology. Juma disputes the popular view that technological development is a major source of environmental degradation. Implementing sustainable-development objectives will require major improvements in economic productivity, which can only be secured through the wise use of technology. Furthermore, technology is increasingly seen as a major agent of environmental management and improvement. The author stresses that international co-operation in the transfer of environmentally sound technologies will not achieve much unless incentives are introduced at the national level to promote the adoption and development of such technologies. It is reforms in the technology-policy instruments at the national level that will lead to the genuine transfer of environmnetally sound technologies to the devloping countries.
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Green Globe Yearbook (GGY) 1995

Russia and International Environmental Co-operation, by Vladimir Kotov (School of Business Management, Russian Academy of Transport, Moscow, Russian Federation) and Elena Nikitina (Institute of World Economy and International Relations, Moscow, Russian Federation)
In their article, Kotov and Nikitina ask whether Russia can be trusted to fulfil its obligations under the environmental agreements and conventions it has signed. In trying to answer that question, the authors point to the difficult economic situation in Russia today, in which environmental questions are given low priority, and environmental programs are lacking up to 90% of necessary funding. The authors also point out that practically all existing Russian industry would have to close down if all legal obligations in the environmental field were to be respected. Even though Russia has made efforts to follow-up Rio's Agenda 21, these still remain little more than paper exercises. The huge environmental problems Russia is struggling with today, were created during the Soviet era when the various ministries were given a free hand to exploit natural resources within their jurisdiction, without environmental concerns. It was not until 1988, and as a result of the perestroika, that federal instruments of environmental protection were created, and they would eventually develop into the Russian Ministry of the Environment.
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A Global Climate Regime: Mission Impossible?, by Helge Ole Bergesen (Fridtjof Nansen Institute, Norway)
In his article, Helge Ole Bergesen assesses the outlook for the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) which came into force in 1994, seeking to find out what is the realistic level of ambition for a global climate regime, and how it can be achieved within a reasonable time-frame. The author also seeks to sort out the promising avenues from the dead ends for international collaboration in this field.
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European Climate Change Policy in a Global Context, by Michael Grubb (Royal Institute of International Affairs, UK)
In his article, Michael Grubb examines the work to reduce the carbon dioxide emissions within the EU, and has found that the solutions that have been chosen on a regional level in Europe may, if successful, show the way towards innovative global schemes of similar type. The Climate Change Convention is forcing the individual EU countries to seriously restructure their energy sectors, even though the difficulties of reaching a consensus on greenhouse gas emission taxes still pose a real problem.
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International Co-operation to Combat Acid Rain, by Marc A. Levy (Princeton University, USA)
In his Article, Marc A. Levy studies the problem of transboundary acid rain. He points out that in Europe, most countries have agreed to a regime of efficient control mechanisms, but that the regime is nevertheless not functioning satisfactory. Levy also points out that while acid rain has so far been perceived as a European and North American problem, the largest emissions of for instance sulphur dioxide will soon be seen in Asia.
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The Role of Science in the Global Climate Negotiations, by John Lanchbery and David Victor (IIASA-International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg, Austria)
In their article, Lanchbery and Victor discuss the crucial interface between science and politics in global climate negotiations, with particular emphasis on the role of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The authors point out that the scientific aspects of the greenhouse effect have been overshadowed by the political game surrounding the Climate Change Convention.
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The Convention on Biological Diversity: A Viable Instrument for Conservation and Sustainable Use?, by G. Kristin Rosendal (Fridtjof Nansen Institute, Norway)
In her article, G. Kristin Rosendal discusses the essential controversy that resolves around wildlife and habitat preservation versus utilisation of biological diversity, which is inherently linked to the dispute over property rights to genetic resources. The author gives a review of the debate on property rights, especially in the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). She further examines how the "Bio Convention" might benefit developing countries, and how the Global Environment Facility (GEF) could operate to compensate developing countries for external use of genetic resources, a major problem that still remains unsolved. GEF is basically a compromise mechanism, and Rosendal voices some criticism of its apparent bias towards biodiversity projects, and its need to downsize some of its projects.
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Building an Environmental Protection Framework for North America: The Role of the Non-governmental Community, by Betty Ferber (Group of 100, Mexico), Lynn Fischer (Natural Resources Defence Council, USA), and Janine Ferretti (Pollution Probe Foundation, Canada)
In their article, Ferber, Fischer and Ferretti outline how the non-governmental environmental community was able to successfully influence the process leading up to the creation of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) that officially entered into force in 1994.
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Transnational Corporations' Strategic Responses to 'Sustainable Development', by Harris Gleckman (United Nations Centre on Transnational Corporations)
In his article, Harris Gleckman examines how transnational corporations are adapting to the Rio process, and he concludes that it is only a minority of these corporations that are concerned about the long-term effects that their activities are having on the environment.
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Green Globe Yearbook (GGY) 1996

International Protection of the Ozone Layer, by Edward A. Parson (John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, USA)
In his article on the Montreal Protocol, Professor Edward A. Parson argues that not only is a few barriers to further progress in implementing protection of the ozone layer presently evident, but several others are likely to become serious within a few years as well. Implementation in developing countries (Article 5 countries) is experiencing a variety of difficulties both regarding funding and negotiating further tightening of controls on Ozone Depleting Substances (ODS).
     The rising need for more stringent implementation controls will increase complexity, which will make non-compliance harder to recognize and demonstrate.
     In general, the international management of ozone depletion has been consistently innovative, and fairly successful. But in many senses only the easiest part of the job has been done, and the most instructive lessons of the ozone regime are those that will be obtained from the attempts to sustain and extend implementation over the next few years, as it becomes difficult.
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The Success of a Voluntary Code in Reducing Pesticide Hazards in Developing Countries, by Barbara Dinham (Pesticides Trust, UK)
Barbara Dinham explores the history of the FAO Code on hazardous pesticides. She concludes that the impact of the Code is limited, but that this is not so much a `failure' as an indication of the extent of the problem to be addressed. Some of the main obstacles at hand is the lack of any mechanism for monitoring compliance, and that there are no satisfactory criteria for identifying pesticides which are causing problems in developing countries.
     Dinham concludes that the Code and the proposed Prior Informed Consent (PIC) Convention provide a basis for safer use and safer pesticides, but because of general conditions in developing countries not many pesticides can be used safely. Both are part of a general awareness of the need for safer practices, but their ability to be more effective needs to be underpinned by safer, sustainable alternatives to chemical pesticides.
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Protecting the Marine Environment of the Wider Caribbean Region: The Challenge of Institution-Building, by Marian A. L. Miller (Department of Political Science, University of Akron, Ohio, USA)
In her article, Marian Miller argues that the Caribbean Environment Programme's (CEP) Action Plan has to face the challenges of scarce resources, conflicting interests, organizational restraints, and the institutional disarray of individual states. Resolving these challenges, she writes, is necessary for the successful resolution of the Action Plan, but it is by no means sufficient to guarantee an effective management regime. A stable environmental management regime needs more than the inputs of the regional actors, state actors, and the corporate sectors. It is also crucial to focus on community-level input, and ensuring local actors' abilities at the implementation stage. Presently, the CEP's approach is too top-down in this respect.
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The 20th Anniversary of the Mediterranean Action Plan: Reason to Celebrate?, by Jon Birger Skjærseth (Fridtjof Nansen Institute, Norway)
In his article on the Mediterranean Action Plan (MAP), Jon Birger Skjærseth concludes, on the basis of an evaluation of achievements under MAP's legal component, that it would be better to set priorities and improve co-ordination among the various activities so as to trigger more substantial action in the future, rather than merely to celebrate the achievements of the past.
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From 'Lead Agency' to 'Integrated Programming': The Global Response to AIDS in the Third World, by Christer Jönsson (University of Lund, Sweden)
Jönsson points out the difficulties involved when a number of UN agencies, national governments, and NGOs try to co-ordinate efforts to deal with an acute development problem, the spread of the AIDS epidemic. WHO was designated lead agency, but the degree of conflict and the variety of agencies concerned with AIDS were underestimated. `Everyone wants co-ordination, but no one wants to be co-ordinated'.
     Jönnson also points out other dilemmas of representation throughout the quest for co-ordination structures: `effective bodies are usually not representative enough, representative bodies are usually not effective enough'. He also argues that state and regional representation are almost unproblematic in AIDS co-ordination compared to formalizing NGO participation. No one knows exactly the size of the NGO community and there is no legitimate umbrella organization for the nomination and selection of NGO representatives in co-ordinating bodies.
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Why UNEP Matters, by Konrad von Moltke (World Wildlife Fund, Washington, DC, USA)
Professor Konrad von Moltke traces the turbulent history of UNEP, emphasizing both its shortcomings and its successes over time. The basic challenge ahead, argues von Moltke, is how to organize a globally operating agency which must address the entire environmental agenda. The budget available to UNEP, along with its mandate, leaves this challenge sorely unmet.
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Greenpeace: Storm-Tossed on the High Seas, by Fred Pearce (New Scientist, UK)
New Scientist's environment consultant, Fred Pearce, provides an account of the fluctuating position Greenpeace has held over the last twenty years in international environmental relations. Pearce examines how Greenpeace manages to profile itself as the only green organization capable of mounting campaigns before a global audience, such as the Brent Spar campaign and their actions in the Mururoa atoll, in spite of the considerable amount of internal tension.
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Development Assistance and the Integration of Environmental Concerns: Current Status and Future Challenges, by Torunn Laugen (Fridtjof Nansen Institute, Norway) and Leiv Lunde (ECON-Centre of Economic Analysis, Norway)
Based on a case-study of Norwegian aid policy performance, Lunde and Laugen concludes that it is a long way from the establishment of policies and principles to effective implementation throughout the aid management system.
     Even at the policy level there is a substantial job to be done in terms of defining priorities and balancing environmental concerns against other aid policy goals.
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Green Globe Yearbook (GGY) 1997

Commodity or Taboo? International Regulation of Trade in Endangered Species, by Peter H. Sand (University of Munich, Germany)
In his article, Peter H. Sand assesses the international regulation of the trade in endangered species by reviewing the operation of the 1973 Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). He concludes with a pessimistic outlook on the future of the Convention, noting that it may already have reached its outer limits. With the advent of large free-trade areas, the future relevance of CITES-type border controls is bound to diminish, unless new methods of regulation can be developed.
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The Global Environment Facility: International Waters Coming into its Own, by Lisa Jorgenson (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA)
In her article, Lisa Jorgenson surveys the International Waters programme of the Global Environmental Facility (GEF). The article explores how international waters became a focus of the GEF and how the programme was redefined by project operations during the pilot phase. It investigates whether there is an adequate science base to help frame the issues, and what the barriers to progress are for international waters in the future.
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UNDP and Global Environmental Problems: The Need for Capacity Development at Country Level, by Poul Engberg-Pedersen (Centre for Development Research, Denmark) and Claus Hvashøj Jørgensen (Department of Environmental Economics, COWI Consulting Engineers and Planners, Denmark)
In their article, Engberg-Pedersen and Jørgensen seek out to answer the question of what role the UNDP can and should play in the international response to global environmental problems, and try to identify the constraints upon the UN Developemnt Programme's (UNDP) expansion of its leading role in capacity building for sustainable development in developing countries.
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IUCN: A Bridge-Builder for Nature Conservation, by Leif E. Christoffersen (Independent consultant, Norway)
In his article on the IUCN-World Conservation Union, Leif E. Christoffersen discusses the difficulties facing the IUCN as a poorly funded hybrid intergovernmental / non-governmental organization trying to refashion its niche in global environmental affairs. The article also offers insight into the rationale behind the current changes in the IUCN's structure.
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The World Wide Fund for Nature: Financing a New Noah's Ark, by Jacob Park (Institute of Advanced Studies, United Nations University, Tokyo, Japan)
In his article, Jacob Park traces the fund-raising challenges and philosophical problems posed for one of the world's most prestigious environmental NGOs - the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) - by the widening of its agenda from species and habitat conservation to embrace almost the whole spectrum of sustainable development issues. Park also explains the rationale behind the current changes in the relationships between WWF's national organisations, programme offices and International Secretariat.
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Yearbook of International Co-operation on Environment and Development (YBICED) 1998/1999

Twenty Years On and Five Years In, by Richard Sandbrook (International Institute for Environment and Development, UK)
In his article, Richard Sandbrook analyses the mixed progress in the 25 years since the Stockholm Conference on the Human Environment, pointing to the "institutional roadblocks that stop us from moving forward". He describes the rise to popularity of "green" issues and the institutionalisation of the term sustainable development, but laments that, despite the flood of articles, conferences and international agreements, the world has not fundamentally changed its approach to the environment. In particular, institutional mechanisms still do not exist to make the trade-offs required between the environment, the economy and social and cultural considerations.
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The International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling: From Over-Exploitation to Total Prohibition, by Sebastian Oberthür (Ecologic-Centre for International and European Environmental Research, Germany)
In his article, Sebastian Oberthür looks at the problems of maintaining co-operation between countries with very different objectives in an agreement, with the International Whaling Commission (IWC) as the case in point. Oberthür describes how IWC has become an arena for uncompromising political controversy, and how internal conflicts affect the Commission's operation.
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Beyond Dumping? The Effectiveness of the London Convention, by Olav Schram Stokke (Fridtjof Nansen Institute, Norway)
In his article, Olav Schram Stokke discusses the effectiveness of the London Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter. Although the regime has many deficiencies (including a "clearly inadequate compliance system"), he concludes it has been successful in persuading countries to avoid disposal of waste at sea by providing an arena for international compromise, a focus for public attention, co-ordination of technology transfer and financial support.
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The CSD Reporting Process: A Quiet Step Forward for Sustainable Development, by Farhana Yamin (FIELD-Foundation for International Environmental Law and Development, UK)
In her article, Farhana Yamin discusses how the UN Commission for Sustainable Development has monitored the follow-up to the Agenda 21 of the UN Conference on Environment and Development in 1992. She finds that institutions can play a valuable role, and apportions the blame for the apparent failure of many agreements and institutions to the fact that the tasks given to them are often over-ambitious.
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The Forest Stewardship Council: Using the Market to Promote Responsible Forestry, by Eleonore Schmidt (Forest Stewardship Council, Mexico)
In her article, Eleonore Schmidt lines out how forest industries, indigenous groups and NGOs are trying to join forces through the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) in order to define standards for sustainable forestry and establish an authoritative labelling system that can earn the confidence of consumers across the world. The FSC provides a possible model for future collaborations that aim to protect the environment without recourse to intergovernmental negotiations and treaty-making.
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Yearbook of International Co-operation on Environment and Development (YBICED) 1999/2000

Evaluation of the Climate Change Regime and Related Developments, by Joyeeta Gupta (Institute for Environmental Studies, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, the Netherlands)
In her article, Joyeeta Gupta discusses whether the climate change regime has the makings of success, and provides an evaluation of progress on the climate regime, taking into account the economic, political, legal, institutional, scientific and environmental perspectives. She points out that, while great progress has been made, potential bottlenecks - resulting, for example, from deep divisions between the developing and developed states, and from government inaction due to fears of domestic opposition to emission reduction policies - could stall the regime.
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Liability and Compensation for Ship-Source Marine Pollution: The International System, by Edgar Gold (Oceans Institute of Canada, Halifax, Canada)
In his article, Edgar Gold discusses the international ship-source marine pollution liability and compensation system and how unilateral measures from individual governments can work against even the best of intentions. He analyses the US' legislation to prevent ship-source marine pollution, and while praising American efforts to improve international liability and compensation mechanisms, the plead is for more emphasis on preventing accidents from occurring in the first place.
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Biodiversity: Between Diverse International Arenas, by G. Kristin Rosendal (Fridtjof Nansen Institute, Norway)
In her article, G. Kristin Rosendal examines the problematic relationship between the Convention on Biological Diversity and the agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPs), which was concluded under the auspices of the World Trade Organisation. Diverging political interests are a real concern, and spillover from the general north-south cleavage can hardly be avoided, and the WTO's established objectives and procedures are clearly in need of reform to adapt to the new demands of sustainable development.
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International Co-operation in Nuclear Safety, by Roland Timerbaev (Moscow Institute of International Relations) and Abram Iorysh (Institute of State and Law, Academy of Sciences, Russian Federation)
In their article, Timerbaev and Iorysh provide an overview of the achievements of the international nuclear safety regime. They describe how the regime has developed since the 1950s under the International Atomic Energy Agency, and have included summaries of relevant conventions. The authors note that the April 1999 meeting of the contracting parties to the Nuclear Safety Convention resulted in a landmark international monitoring system for dealing with the nuclear safety status of participating countries.
     The authors show how national sovereignty remains sensitive to intrusion from intergovernmental organisations, especially when the subject matter touches on security issues, as is the case with the nuclear safety regime. They also show how insufficient national capacity in the field of nuclear safety, remains a serious obstacle that cannot be solved through declarations.
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The Treatment of Environmental Considerations in the World Trade Organization, by Beatrice Chaytor and James Cameron (FIELD-Foundation for International Environmental Law and Development, UK)
In their article, Chaytor and Cameron demonstrate that there is still a long way to go before environmental and trade matters are seen as equally important. The authors assess the World Trade Organisation's treatment of environmental issues, and assert that procedural and substantial reform of the WTO will be required in order to integrate sustainable development into its rules. However, established institutions as WTO do not easily and voluntarily adapt to new demands, and even if changes are long overdue, institutional inertia and organizational turf fights, often stimulated by political disagreement, lead to frustrating delays.
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World Business Council for Sustainable Development: The Greening of Business or a Greenwash?, by Adil Najam (Boston University, USA)
In his article, Adil Najam highlights the trend in international business of pursuing a better image and more attractive ideas also in the environmental field. Najam disscusses the growing participation of business in environmental policy-making - via the Geneva-based World Business Council for sustainable Development - but questions whether this represents true greening of the private sector, or just a "greenwash". The importance of the image competition lies in the expectations created in what is often a war of words.
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Yearbook of International Co-operation on Environment and Development (YBICED) 2001/2002

Global Environmental Governance: UN Fragmentation and Co-ordination, by Steinar Andresen (Fridtjof Nansen Institute, Norway)
There has been a tremendous growth in multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs) over the last two decades. More recently there has been a call for better co-ordination between these agreements, with a key role attributed to the UN. In contrast to popular opinion it argued that institutional UN amendments cannot be expected to make much of a difference it terms of actual problem-solving as other factors are more important. Still, the issue is important both analytically and politically. It is furthermore argued that it is not self-evident that the UN should be involved in 'all' MEAs, alternatives outside the UN also have some merits. Therefore a concentration of resources may be necessary. Finally, a formalised top-down approach to co-ordination is probably neither feasible nor the best approach to choose.
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ISO Environmental Standards: Industry's Gift to a Polluted Globe or the Developed World's Competition-Killing Strategy?, by Jennifer Clapp (Trent University, Canada)
The ISO 14000 series of environmental management system standards have emerged as the dominant voluntary code of industry environmental conduct at the international level. As firms in both developed and developing countries increasingly adopt these standards, it appears that adherence to the standards may become a de facto condition for conducting business in the global marketplace. At the same time, concern has been expressed regarding the ISO 14000 standards. These concerns have focused on their impact on firms' environmental performance, their effect on market access for small and medium sized enterprises, and the decision-making procedures by which they were set. Critics claim that in each of these areas the ISO 14000 standards fall short, and that as a result the standards are in effect less of an environmental measure, and more a mechanism to enhance the international trade competitiveness of large industrialized country firms and transnational corporations.
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The 1999 Multi-Pollutant Protocol: A Neglected Break-Through in Solving Europe's Air Pollution Problems?, by Jørgen Wettestad (Fridtjof Nansen Institute, Norway)
On November 30 1999 a new and innovative multi-pollutant and multi-effects protocol was adopted in Gothenburg, within the framework of the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP). Although given little attention by the media at the time, according to the then LRTAP Secretary Lars Nordberg, the agreement is 'the most sophisticated environmental agreement ever negotiated and will yield great benefits, for both our environment and health'. This article addresses the following three main questions. First, what was the background for the start-up of negotiations on such a protocol? Second, how did the process unfold and which were the main factors shaping the outcome? As a very parallel policy process has taken place within the European Union, specific attention is given to the interplay between the LRTAP and EU processes. Third, what are the main prospects ahead, in terms of implementation scenarios and institutional interplay between LRTAP and the EU?
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The Basel Convention and the International Trade in Hazardous Wastes, by Jonathan Krueger (Harvard University, USA)
Shipments of homeless hazardous wastes are again making headlines. Whether mercury-contaminated waste dumped in Cambodia or toxic PCBs from US military bases in Japan rejected by ports in both the US and Canada, the difficulties of sending such materials across borders seem not to have been confined to the dustbin of the 20th century. The key international treaty governing transboundary movements of hazardous wastes - the Basel Convention - celebrated its tenth anniversary in December 1999. This article outlines and evaluates the development of the Convention, its links with other regional and international agreements and the prospects for its second decade.
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The United Nations Fish Stocks Agreement, by Lawrence Juda (University of Rhode Island, USA)
World fisheries are under intense pressure from excessive fishing and inadequate management; many stocks have been depleted and commercially endangered. The 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea established a new international legal framework for marine fisheries and recognized the jurisdictional capacity of coastal states to manage fisheries within exclusive economic zones (EEZs) that extend to 200 miles from the baselines used to measure territorial seas. Approximately 90-95% of total world fish catch comes from EEZs. EEZs, however, do not coincide with the ecological space over which fisheries roam and significant problems have arisen with respect to the management of highly migratory fish stocks and stocks that straddle EEZs and adjacent high seas.
     The UN Fish Stocks Agreement addresses such problems and fills an important void in international fishery law. Not yet in force, this agreement will supplement the Law of the Sea Convention and strengthen the role of international organizations concerned with fisheries conservation and management. In doing so, the Agreement can contribute substantially to ensure the continued availability of the ocean's fishery resources.
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The World Bank: A Lighter Shade of Green?, by David Hunter (CIEL-Center for International Environmental Law, Washington, DC, USA)
In his article, David Hunter points out that Despite some meaningful advances, the World Bank still falls short of effectively integrating environmental concerns into its vision of sustainable development. This has also been admitted by the World Bank itself. Hunter argues that the bank's failure to meet the aspirations of its environmental critics reflects not only an unwillingness within the Bank, but more fundamentally an unwillingness among both donor and borrower countries to promote new models of sustainable development.
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Yearbook of International Co-operation on Environment and Development (YBICED) 2002/2003

The Johannesburg Summit and Sustainable Development: How Effective Are Environmental Mega-Conferences? by Gill Seyfang and Andrew Jordan (University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK)
The Johannesburg Summit on sustainable development will be the fourth environmental mega-conference organized by the United Nations. The hope is that it will build upon the work of the Stockholm (1972), Rio (1992) and New York (1997) 'earth' summits. Environmental mega-conferences are distinctly different from environmental conferences that are regularly convened around the world to establish regional or cross-national policies, oversee the implementation of older ones and settle disputes. Thirty years after Stockholm, it is important to ask whether mega-conferences are the best way in which society can grapple meaningfully with the expansive agenda of sustainable development. Or, are they as much a symptom of the patterns of unsustainable development as an effective institutional mechanism for addressing them? History suggests that mega-conferences seek to perform a series of inter-linked functions, such as setting international agendas, exercising global leadership and endorsing common principles. The purpose of this chapter is to ask how well the previous three mega-conferences have fulfilled these functions, and look forward to the next phase of mega-environmental diplomacy, which will follow the World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) in Johannesburg.
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The Global Climate Change Regime: Taking Stock and Looking Ahead, by Benito Müller (Oxford Institute for Energy Studies, UK)
Climate change may well be the biggest and most complex environment-related problem for international co-operation during this century and beyond. In the last ten years, this issue has been the focus of intense and, given its complexity, remarkably successful global negotiations under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. The focus of these negotiations has been firmly on establishing a multilateral emission mitigation regime. This 'mitigation agenda' found its culmination to date in the recently finalised Kyoto Protocol, which is likely to come into force before the World Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg 2002, the tenth anniversary of the Framework Convention. This article argues that –not withstanding some widespread Northern misconceptions– the FCCC regime is unlikely to succeed unless the key Southern (equity) concern of (sharing) human impact burdens is put firmly on its agenda for the coming years. It also suggests that the forthcoming eighth Conference of the FCCC Parties, hosted by the Indian government in New Delhi, presents a unique opportunity to set such a process in motion.
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Environmental Protection in the South Pacific: The Effectiveness of SPREP and its Conventions, by Richard Herr (University of Tasmania, Australia)
The South Pacific Regional Environment Programme (SPREP) has become an essential element in the area's system of environmental protection as well as a central actor in regional affairs. SPREP's mission is defined as 'to promote cooperation in the South Pacific region and to provide assistance in order to protect and improve its environment and ensure sustainable development for present and future generations'. SPREP's work programme reflects both an evolving Pacific Islands environmental agenda and an accommodation of world priorities. SPREP has enabled the microstates of the region to participate in a number of global environmental regimes as well as to articulate their regional concerns more effectively than their limited resources would otherwise allow. Most of SPREP's 26 members are developing countries. Thus, a substantial aspect of its regional mandate is capacity building and assisting its developing members in meeting a growing range of environmental challenges.
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The Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty: A Ten-Year Review, by Davor Vidas (Fridtjof Nansen Institute, Norway)
The Antarctic Environmental Protocol was adopted in 1991 and entered into force in 1998. This article reviews the impact and implementation record of the Protocol thus far from several perspectives. Politically, the Protocol has served to strengthen international cooperation within the Antarctic Treaty System and to enhance its acceptance by the broader international community. Legally, the Protocol has introduced a comprehensive approach to Antarctic environmental protection, made commitments binding, and established the advisory Committee for Environmental Protection. As regards Antarctic environmental management, the Protocol has served to minimize environmental impacts of human activities in the region by increasing awareness of domestic agencies, transparency of domestic implementation, and mutual control among states regarding environmental practices. The full effect of this is, however, hampered by the vagueness of some core requirements under the Protocol, including the standards for conducting environmental impact assessments. Moreover, an unfinished agenda remains: the unresolved issues of jurisdiction, control and enforcement, especially regarding activities by third parties, such as tourism; the adoption of a liability regime for environmental damage; the improvement of Annexes through their rolling review; and the establishment of a Secretariat.
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The Ramsar Convention on Wetlands: Has it Made a Difference? by Michael Bowman (University of Nottingham, UK)
Wetland habitats have traditionally been regarded with suspicion and distaste, and have frequently fallen victim to human 'reclamation' for agricultural or residential land or other anthropocentric purposes. Reappraisal of wetland attributes has only relatively recently taken place, resulting in the recognition of a wide range of ecological and other values. Central to this rehabilitation has been the 1971 Ramsar Convention on Wetlands of International Importance, especially as Waterfowl Habitat. Although the obligations created by the Convention are not particularly rigorous or extensive, it has served an important educative function and acted as a vehicle for the development of a reasonably detailed policy framework for wetland conservation, primarily through the elaboration of the guidelines and procedures established by the various Ramsar organs. Non-governmental organizations have played a particularly crucial role in the Convention's evolution.
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Friends of the Earth International (FoEI), by Keith Suter (Director of Studies of the Australian branch of the International Law Association)
The FoEI is based on national member groups and affiliated NGOs, each of which are autonomous bodies with own budgets. There are 12 broad campaign areas, grouped under three headings: 'safeguarding Earth', 'resisting economic globalization', and 'finding solutions'. While impressive in scope and containing many aspirational points, it is not clear how much is actually done in each of these areas to influence decisions that affect the environment. The ability of FoEI to survive for over three decades is due in part to the geographical spread of its membership, which now includes also some national sections in developing countries and economies in transition. The organization has taken a very broad definition of what are 'environmental' issues and targets such key North-South equity issues as global investment rules and World Bank lending policies. The FoEI now faces the risk that public support will drift away as peple become reconciled to living with environmental problems rather than taking the drastic actions necessary to prevent them. Another threat to the organization is that its internal diversity, spurred by geographic spread and the lack of any agreed political ideology, may blur its external profile and disrupt its internal cohesiveness.
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Yearbook of International Co-operation on Environment and Development (YBICED) 2003/2004

Franchising Global Governance: Making Sense of the Johannesburg Type II Partnerships, by Liliana B. Andonova (Columbia Earth Institute and Columbia University, USA) and Marc A. Levy (Center for International Earth Science Information Network, Columbia Earth Institute and Columbia University, USA)
The World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) devoted considerable effort to promoting multi-stakeholder transnational partnerships as a device to usher in a new era of results-oriented governance. Yet, a systematic empirical review of the WSSD partnerships suggests that they may not be well positioned to deliver on this promise. On balance the partnerships are supply-driven by donors and large transnational NGOs rather than demand-driven by developing countries and traditionally underrepresented stakeholders; they reflect ongoing implementation efforts more than new ideas for bridging core implementation gaps. In addition, the study finds that participation in the partnerships is highly uneven and mirrors prevailing patterns more than challenges it. Disparities in power and priorities that have dominated intergovernmental discourse of the past decade are quite visible in these partnerships. Finally, the study concludes that the question of how best to follow up on partnerships deserves much more critical thought than was possible leading up to Johannesburg.
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Protecting the Baltic Sea: The Helsinki Convention and National Interests, by Björn Hassler (Baltic and East European Graduate School, Södertörn University College, Sweden)
The ecological stability of the Baltic Sea is particularly sensitive due to natural as well as man-made factors. The large number of inhabitants and significant number of countries in the Baltic Sea drainage area makes regional co-operation on abatement of trans-national pollution essential. The main regional institutional response has been the Helsinki Convention and the Helsinki Commission (HELCOM). In this article, it is argued that the main determinant behind the pattern of co-operation in this region has been the distribution of capability and national interests among the riparian states. HELCOM is thus analytically treated as a political outcome rather than as an independent actor. However, although most environmental abatement projects have been established on a bilateral basis, HELCOM has in some important ways been able to shape regional co-operative patterns by acting as an agenda-setter. The Helsinki convention created a structural setting in which an extensive joint environmental action program could be formulated. By making not only countries, but also international financial institutions, the EU, and various IGOs and INGOs part of the process, the particular interests of individual countries have, at least to some extent, been directed towards the attainment of collective environmental benefits rather than towards myopic national benefits.
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FAO and the Management of Plant Genetic Resources, by Regine Andersen (Fridtjof Nansen Institute, Norway)
Plant genetic resources for food and agriculture are vital for food security and human survival. This article assesses the work done within the FAO system to establish an international regime for the management of these resources with a view to achievements and limitations. The point of departure is an outline of the basic problems and how they affect food security. As other international agreements pose limitations to and prospects for the FAO efforts, this context is highlighted accordingly. Against this backdrop, the challenging role and work of The Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (CGRFA) of the FAO are described and evaluated. Two international agreements receive particular attention in this context: the International Undertaking (1983) and the International Treaty (2001), both on plant genetic resources for food and agriculture. A breakthrough in the international management of these vital resources depends on awareness, political priorities and funding.
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Analysing the ECE Water Convention: What Lessons for the Regional Management of Transboundary Water Resources? by Patricia Wouters (Director of International Water Law Research Institute, University of Dundee, Scotland) and Sergei Vinogradov (Centre for Energy, Petroleum, and Mineral Law and Policy, University of Dundee, Scotland)
This article critically examines the legal regime established by the 1992 Helsinki Convention on the Protection and Use of Transboundary Watercourses and International Lakes concluded under the auspices of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe, and identifies some of the future challenges. Has the ECE Water Convention had any impact on improving transboundary water resource management in Europe? Is there an identifiable legal regime effectively operating and evolving? What is the level of implementation, and how tangible are the results on the ground? The authors conclude that the ECE Water Convention has had significant impact on the regional and river basin management of transboundary waters. Most notably, it provides a coherent and flexible legal framework that should be considered as a possible model for regional co-operation.
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The External Environmental Policy of the European Union, by John Vogler (School of Politics, International Relations, and Environment, Keele University, UK)
The European Union has become increasingly significant in international environmental politics, but the precise terms on which it participates and the extent to which it may be regarded as a single actor are far from clear. This article attempts to unravel some of the complexities by considering how the EU developed an external environmental policy and the respective competence and roles of the European Community and its Member States. The acceptance of the European Community (EC) by outsiders has also been important, with the development of the special category of Regional Economic Integration Organization (REIO) in various conventions, but with significantly limited rights afforded within the UN system. The peculiarities of the EU as a negotiator are then considered and there is, in conclusion, a brief evaluation of the capabilities and constraints that determine the EU's performance as an actor in international environmental diplomacy.
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Stemming the Tide: Third World Network and Global Governance, by Graham K. Brown (University of Nottingham, UK)
Through extensive publications and close collaboration with the governments of some developing countries, Third World Network (TWN) has grown to be among the foremost critics of the current system of global governance, particularly the trading system embodied in organisations such as the WTO, IMF and World Bank. The lack of democracy in these bodies, TWN argues, allows them to be dominated by powerful Western countries, which enforce an agenda suiting their own needs, to the degradation of the interests of developing countries. Despite its prominence, however, TWN has failed to offer a thorough and, arguably, sufficiently radical critique of the existing system. Indeed, its failure to articulate a sophisticated alternative to the existing system, and its continued involvement in the WTO negotiations—albeit as a critical outsider—as well as with various UN agencies, leaves TWN open to criticism that it has been to some extent co-opted into the existing regime.
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