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Jørgen Wettestad

Jørgen WettestadPosition at FNI: Research Professor

Academic background
   Full professor competence (Forsker 1), 2005
   Cand. polit., University of Oslo (political science, sociology, history), 1984.

Professional experience
   Member of management committe of EU COST programme on climate policy innovation (INOGOV) (Since 2014).
   Editorial Advisory Board Member, Climate Policy journal (Since 2001).
   Coordinator of the EU-financed Concerted Action Programme on the Effectiveness of International Environmental Agreements and EU Legislation (1999-2000).
   Associate Fellow, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) (1994-96).
   Visiting Scholar, Institute for International Studies, Berkeley (1993).
   Involved in several international research evaluations.

Main research interests
EU energy, climate and environmental politics, and implications for and links to Norway. Specific empirical focus on climate and air pollution politics. The design and functioning of emissions trading systems. Regime theory and theory on EU politics, including questions related to the effectiveness and design of international environmental institutions.

Major publications


Wettestad, Jørgen and Torbjørg Jevnaker, Rescuing EU Emissions Trading: The Climate Policy Flagship. Basingstoke (UK), Palgrave, 2016, 119 p.

Boasson, Elin Lerum and Jørgen Wettestad, EU Climate Policy: Industry, Policy Interaction and External Environment. Farnham, Ashgate, 2013, 223 p.

Skjærseth, Jon Birger and Jørgen Wettestad, EU Emissions Trading: Initiation, Decision-making and Implementation. Aldershot, Ashgate, 2008, 216 p.

Wettestad, Jørgen, Clearing the Air - European advances in tackling acid rain and atmospheric pollution. Ashgate, 2002, 202 p.

Miles, Edward L., Arild Underdal, Steinar Andresen, Jørgen Wettestad, Jon Birger Skjærseth and Elaine M. Carlin, Environmental Regime Effectiveness: Confronting Theory with Evidence. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2001, 491 p.

Andresen, Steinar, Tora Skodvin, Arild Underdal and Jørgen Wettestad, Science and Politics in International Environmental Regimes. Between integrity and involvement. Manchester University Press, 2000.

Wettestad, Jørgen, Designing Effective Environmental Regimes. The Key Conditions. Edward Elgar Publishing, 1999, 272 p.

Articles and book chapters

Andresen, Steinar, Jon Birger Skjærseth, Torbjørg Jevnaker and Jørgen Wettestad. 'The Paris Agreement: Consequences for the EU and carbon markets?' Politics and Governance, Vol 4, No 3, 2016, pp. 188-196.

Jevnaker, Torbjørg and Jørgen Wettestad. 'Linked Carbon Markets: Silver Bullet or Castle in the Air?' Climate Law, Vol 5, Nos 1-2, 2016, pp. 109-117.

Wettestad, Jørgen, 'Air Pollution'. In P.H. Pattberg and F. Zelli (eds), Encyclopedia of Global Environmental Governance and Politics. Cheltenham, Edward Elgar, 2015, pp. 307-315.

Wettestad, Jørgen, 'EU Emissions Trading'. In Karin Bäckstrand and Eva Løvbrand (eds), Research Handbook on Climate Governance. Cheltenham, Edward Elgar, 2015, pp. 345-356.

Inderberg, Tor Håkon and Jørgen Wettestad, 'Carbon capture and storage in the UK and Germany: easier task, stronger commitment?' Environmental Politics, Vol 24, No 6, 2015, pp. 1014-1033.

Wettestad, Jørgen, 'The EU Emissions Trading System: Frontrunner in Trouble'. In Geert Van Calster, Wim Vandenberghe, Leonie Reins (eds), Research Handbook on Climate Change Mitigation Law. Cheltenham (UK), Edward Elgar, 2015, pp. 451-476.

Boasson, Elin Lerum and Jørgen Wettestad, 'Policy invention and entrepreneurship: Bankrolling the burying of carbon in the EU'. Global Environmental Change, Vol 29, 2014, pp. 404-412.

Boasson, Elin Lerum Boasson and Wettestad, Jørgen, 'The Interaction of EU Climate Policies: Mechanisms and Lessons'. In Tony Fitzpatrick (ed), International Handbook on Social Policy and the Environment. Cheltenham (UK), Edward Elgar, 2014, pp. 329-349-17.

Wettestad, Jørgen, 'Rescuing EU Emissions Trading: Mission Impossible?' Global Environmental Politics, Vol 14, No 2, 2014, pp. 64-81.

Wettestad, Jørgen and Torbjørg Jevnaker, 'The EU's Quest for Linked Carbon Markets: Turbulence and Headwind'. In Cherry, T.L., J. Hovi and D.M. McEvoy (eds), Toward a New Climate Agreement: Conflict, Resolution and Governance. London, Routledge, 2014, pp. 266-279.

Wettestad, Jørgen and Liv Arntzen Løchen, 'Steel Industry'. In Jon Birger Skjærseth and Per Ove Eikeland (eds), Corporate Responses to EU Emissions Trading: Resistance, Innovation or Responsibility? Farnham (UK), Ashgate, 2013, pp. 209-252.

Wettestad, Jørgen, Per Ove Eikeland and Måns Nilsson, 'EU Climate and Energy Policy: A Hesitant Supranational Turn?' Global Environmental Politics, Vol 12, No 2, 2012, pp. 65-84.

Wettestad, Jørgen, 'EU Emissions Trading; Achivements and Challenges'. In Birchfield, Vicky L. and John Duffield (eds), Toward A Common European Union Energy Policy - Problems, Progress and Prospects. New York, Palgrave Macmillan, 2011, pp. 87-113.

Skjærseth, Jon Birger and Jørgen Wettestad, 'Fixing the EU Emissions Trading System? Understanding the Post-2012 Changes'. Global Environmental Politics, Vol 10, No 4, 2010, pp. 101-123.

Wettestad, Jørgen, 'EU Energy-Intensive Industries and Emission Trading: Losers Becoming Winners?' Environmental Policy and Governance, Vol 19, No 5, 2009, pp. 309-320.

Wettestad, Jørgen, 'Interaction Between EU Carbon Trading and the International Climate Regime: Synergies and Learning'. International Environmental Agreements, Vol 9, No 4, 2009, pp. 393-408.

Wettestad, Jørgen, 'European Climate Policy: Toward Centralized Governance?' Review of Policy Research, Vol 26, No 3, 2009, pp. 311-328.

Skjærseth, Jon B. and Jørgen Wettestad, 'The Origin, Evolution and Consequences of the EU Emissions Trading System'. Global Environmental Politics, Vol 9, No 2, 2009, pp. 101-123.

Skjærseth, Jon Birger and Jørgen Wettestad, 'Implementing EU Emissions Trading: Success or Failure?'. International Environmental Agreements, Vol 8, 2008, No 3, pp. 275-290.

Skjærseth, Jon B. and Jørgen Wettestad, 'Is EU Enlargement Bad for Environmental Policy? Confronting Gloomy Expectations with Evidence'. International Environmental Agreements, Vol 7, No 3, 2007, pp. 263-280.

Sæverud, Ingvild Andreassen and Jørgen Wettestad, 'Norway and Emissions Trading: From Global Front-runner to EU Follower'. International Environmental Agreements, Vol 6, No 1, 2006, pp. 91-108.

Wettestad, Jørgen, 'The Effectiveness of Environmental Policies'. In Betsill, Michele, Kathryn Hochstetler and Dimitris Stevis (eds), Palgrave Advances in International Environmental Politics. New York, Palgrave Macmillan, 2005, pp. 373-410.

Wettestad, Jørgen, 'The Making of the 2003 EU Emissions Trading Directive: An Ultra-Quick Process due to Entrepreneurial Proficiency?' Global Environmental Politics, Vol 5, No 1, 2005, pp. 1-24.

Wettestad, Jørgen, 'Air Pollution: International Success, Domestic Problems'. In Skjærseth, Jon Birger (ed), International Regimes and Norway`s Environmental Policy: Crossfire and Coherence. Aldershot, Ashgate, 2004, pp. 85-111.

Christiansen, A. C. and Jørgen Wettestad, 'The EU as a frontrunner on greenhouse gas emissions trading: How did it happen and will the EU succeed?'. Climate Policy, Vol 3, No 1, 2003, pp. 3-18.

Skjærseth, Jon Birger and Jørgen Wettestad, 'Understanding the Effectiveness of EU Environmental Policy: How Can Regime Analysis Contribute?'. Environmental Politics, Vol 11, No 3, 2002, pp. 99-121.


Wettestad, Jørgen and Lars H.Gulbrandsen, The Evolution of Carbon Trading Systems: Waves, Design and Diffusion. FNI Report 9/2015. Lysaker, FNI, 2015, 40 p.

Underdal, Arild, David G.Victor and Jørgen Wettestad, Studying the Global Diffusion oif Emissions Trading: Key Building Blocks in the ETS DIFFUSION Project Research Design, FNI Report 2/2015. Lysaker, FNI, 2015, 15 p.

Wettestad, Jørgen, Do New EU Agencies Mean Decreased National Powers? The Case of Chemicals and Norway. FNI Report 14/2014. Lysaker, FNI, 2014, 17 p.

Jevnaker, Torbjørg, Tor Håkon Inderberg, Jørgen Wettestad and Maria Waag, Den britiske klimalovens første fem år: en oversikt over sentral nasjonal dynamikk og samspillet med EU ('The UK's Climate Change Act's first five years: an overview of domestic developments and interaction with the EU'). Oslo, Energi Norge, 2014, 24 p. In Norwegian.

Recent presentations and commentary articles

Wettestad, Jørgen and Torbjørg Jevnaker, 'Klimakvoter i medvind' ('Greenhouse gas emission quotas gaining popularity'), Klima, 27.05.2015. In Norwegian.

Wettestad, Jørgen and Torbjørg jevnaker, 'Mot kvassere klimakvoter i EU' ('Towards stricter emission quotas in the EU'), Energi og Klima, 13.05.2015. In Norwegian.

Wettestad, Jørgen and Torbjørg Jevnaker, 'Some much needed momentum is finally building behind the EU’s emissions trading system', EUROPP Blog, 24.04.2015.

Jevnaker, Torbjørg, Jørgen Wettestad and Tor Håkon Inderberg, 'Klimalov bør utredes grundig – en kjapp høring holder ikke' ('A Climate Law Should Be Carefuly Considered – a Quick Hearing Is Not Enough'), Energi og Klima, 28.11.2014. In Norwegian.

Inderberg, Tor Håkon, Torbjørg Jevnaker and Jørgen Wettestad, 'Gir klimalov bedre politikk?' ('Will a Climate Law Lead to Better Policies?'), Dagens Næringsliv, 09.11.2014. In Norwegian.

Wettestad, Jørgen, 'Rask innstramming av EUs kvotesystem?' ('Rapid Tightening of the EU Emissions Trading System?'), Energi & Klima, 04.11.2014. In Norwegian.

Wettestad, Jørgen, 'Mot global karbonprising' ('Towards Global Carbon Pricing'), Klima, 30.10.2014.'

Wettestad, Jørgen, 'Designing Effective Emissions Trading: Lessons from the EU ETS'. Presentation at TEMPO 2014, Oslo, 18.06.2014.

Boasson, Elin Lerum og Jørgen Wettestad, 'Europaparlamentet som klimajoker' ('The European Parliament as a Climate Policy Joker'), Energi og Klima, 07.03.2014. In Norwegian.

Wettestad, Jørgen, 'Klimakvoter på vent' ('Emissions Trading Allowances on Hold'), Dagens Næringsliv, 28.01.2014. In Norwegian.

Boasson, Elin Lerum og Jørgen Wettestad, 'EUs nye klimapolitikk: boksekampen har begynt' (The EU's New Climate Policies: The Fight is On', Dagens Næringsliv, 23.01.2014. In Norwegian.

Boasson, Elin Lerum and Jørgen Wettestad, 'Kortsiktig om sertifikater' ('Short-Sighted View of Green Certificates'), Dagens Næringsliv, 29.09.2012. In Norwegian.

Wettestad, Jørgen, 'Kvotekamp i EU: Hvor står Norge?' ('The fight over EU emissions trading: what is the position of Norway?'). Presentation at ZERO, Oslo, 11.09.2012.

Wettestad, Jørgen, 'The EU emissions trading system: repaired, but still leaking?', Klima, No. 2 2012. (Norwegian version here)

Wettestad, Jørgen, 'EUs klimapakke: Fra sprikende staur til skreddersøm?' ('EU's Climate Package: Sprawling Policies Turned Tailor-made?'). Presentation at the seminar 'EUs satsning på fornybar energi: Muligheter og problemer?' ('The EU's Emphasis on Renewable Energy: Opportunities and Problems?'), FNI, 17 June 2009. In Norwegian.

Wettestad, Jørgen, 'Revising EU Emissions Trading: A "Requested Revolution"?'. Lecture, 'The European Union and the Fight against Global Climate Change' lecture series, Institute for European Studies (IES), Brussels, 29 October 2008.
Contact details
   (+47) 67111942
   jorgen.wettestad (

 Related focal points of research

   European energy and environmental politics
   Climate change
   Global governance and sustainable development

 Important ongoing projects

Designing Effective Emissions Trading: The Contribution of International Diffusion (ETS-DIFFUSION)

Strategic Challenges in International Climate and Energy Policy (CICEP)

Revising the National Renewables Policy Mix: The role of state aid and other key EU policies (REMIX)

Innovations in Climate Governance (INOGOV)

Designing Knowledge-Based Management Systems for Environmental Governance in Norway.

 Important past projects

Reforming the EU Emissions Trading System: Causes and Consequences (2009-2013)

Toxics Diplomacy: Norway in International Cooperation Concerning Hazardous Substances and Trade (2010-2013)

Climate change Altering Nordic Energy Systems (CANES) (2007-2011)

The EU Emissions Trading Scheme: Key Conditions and Prospects for Effectiveness (2004-2009)

EU Enlargement – Challenges to the Effectiveness of Environmental Policy (2004-2008)

 Recent relevant FNI News

FNI provides key input to report to hammer out future EU climate change policy (05.11.2015)

FNI Recommends Government to Conduct Thorough Assessment of a Possible Norwegian Climate Act (01.02.2015)

KLIMAFORSK Announcement Means Strong Boost to FNI Climate Research (11.03.2014)

Corporate Responses to EU Emissions Trading (08.07.2013)

FNI at ISA (17.04.2013)

Overlever EUs klimapolitikk finanskrisen – og hva betyr det for Norge? ('Will the EU's Climate Policies Survive the Financial Crisis – and What Are the Consequences for Norway?') (23.01.2013)

EU Climate Policy – From Rhetoric to Action (18.01.2013)

 Recent media coverage

'EU-landene strides om minstepris på CO2' ('EU countries fight over CO2 minimum price'),, 22.05.2016. In Norwegian.

'Momentum finally building for EU ETS -researchers', Carbon Pulse, 24.04.2015.

'China's carbon plans: secrecy and oversupply darken outlook', Reuters, 18.08.2014.

'EU Climate Policy: Industry, Policy Interaction and External Environment' (book review), Journal of Contemporary European Studies, Vol 22, No 2, 11.07.2014.

'Kartlegger virkninger av britisk klimalov' ('Mapping the Effects of British Climate Law'), Energi Norge, 13.02,2014. In Norwegian.

 Jørgen's music

BourBon Boys

Fridtjof Nansen Institute
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