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Morten Walløe Tvedt

Morten Walløe TvedtPosition at FNI: Senior Research Fellow

Academic background
Cand. jur., University of Oslo, 2001 (International Environmental Law, Costa Rican Law, Methodology of Law)

Professional experience
   Teaching at the Universities of Oslo and Tromsø (since 1999).
   Assistant Lawyer, Advokatfirmaet Hjort (2001-2002).
   Research Assistant in International Environmental Law (University of Oslo, 1998-2000).

Main research interests
   Legal regulation of invention and development, in particular for gene-, bio- and nanotechnology.
   International regulation of intellectual property. Particular specialisation in international intellectual property rights, as patent law, plant breeders'rights and sui generis legal systems.
   Regulation of property rights to genetic resources and genetic material. Specialised in legislation regulating Access to and Benefit Sharing from use of Genetic Resources. The Convention on Biological Diversity and the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture.
   Theory of law and the background problems for legal systems and legal argumentation.
   Interest and broad experience on Environmental law. Implementation of international law in domestic legislation.

Major publications

International Books

Mäki-Tanila, Asko, Morten Walløe Tvedt, Hans Ekström and Erling Fimland, Management and Exchange of Animal Genetic Resources – Nordic perspective. Copenhagen, Nordic Council of Ministers, 2008, 81 p.

Tvedt, Morten Walløe and Tomme Young, Beyond Access: Exploring Implementation of the Fair and Equitable Sharing Commitment in the CBD. Gland (Switzerland), IUCN, 2007, xx + 148 p.

Tvedt, Morten Walløe, A Nordic Approach to Access and Rights to Genetic Resources. Nordic Council of Ministers, 2003.

Norwegian books

Tvedt, Morten Walløe, Norsk genressursrett ('Norwegian Gene Resource Law'). Oslo, Cappelen Akademiske Forlag, 2010, 380 p. In Norwegian.

Tvedt, Morten Walløe, Å skrive jus til eksamen. Cappelen Akademisk Forlag, annen utgave 2004.

Tvedt, Morten Walløe, Å skrive analyseoppgaver til eksamen. Cappelen Akademisk Forlag, 2003.

Other publications

Rosendal, G. Kristin, Anne Ingeborg Myhr and Morten Walløe Tvedt, 'Access and Benefit Sharing legislation for marine bioprospecting: Lessons from Australia for the role of Marbank in Norway'. Journal of World Intellectual Property Rights, Online 06.06.2016, 13 p. DOI: 10.1111/jwip.12058

Prip, Christian, G. Kristin Rosendal and Morten Walløe Tvedt,
The state of technology transfer obligations in global environmental governance and law: biodiversity conservation and sustainable use. FNI Report 4/2015. Lysaker, FNI, 2015, 18 p.

Rosendal, Kristin and Morten Walløe Tvedt, 'Biological diversity'. In P.H. Pattberg and F. Zelli (eds), Encyclopedia of Global Environmental Governance and Politics. Cheltenham, Edward Elgar, 2015, pp. 322-328.

Vidas, Davor, Ole Kristian Fauchald, Øystein Jensen and Morten Walløe Tvedt, 'International law for the Anthropocene? Shifting perspectives in regulation of the oceans, environment and genetic resources'. Anthropocene, Vol 9, 2015, pp. 1-13.

Tvedt, Morten Walløe, Report from the workshop Stocktaking ABS in the Nordic Countries – with a particular view to business. FNI Report 3/2015. Lysaker, FNI, 2015, 27 p.

Tvedt, Morten Walløe, 'Norwegian Experiences with ABS'. In Coolsaet, Brendan, Fulya Batur, Arianna Broggiato, John Pitseys and Tom Dedeurwaerdere (eds), Implementing the Nagoya Protocol. Leiden/Boston, Brill | Nijhoff, 2015, pp. 175-193.

Tvedt, Morten Walløe. 'Access to Plant Genetic Resources - Legal Questions for Material on its Way into the Multilateral System of the Plant Treaty'. Law Environment and Development Journal, Vol 11, No 1, 2015, pp. 35-50.

Tvedt, Morten Walløe, 'Changes in the Plant Treaty - How Can Benefit Sharing Happen and the Link to Intellectual Property Rights - Assessing the Mutually Supportiveness'. Law Environment and Development Journal, Vol 11, No 1, 2015, pp. 21-34.

Bavikatte, Kabir Sanjay and Morten Walløe Tvedt, 'Beyond the Thumbrule Approach: Regulatory Innovation for Bioprospecting in India'. Law Environment and Development Journal, Vol 11, No 1, 2015, pp 1-20.

Tvedt, Morten Walløe, 'Into ABS Implementation: Challenges and Opportunities for the Nagoya Protocol'. Biores, Vol, No 8, 2014, pp. 9-13.

Jørem, Ane and Morten Walløe Tvedt, 'Bioprospecting in the High Seas: Existing Rights and Obligations in View of a New Legal Regime for Marine Areas beyond National Jurisdiction'. International Journal of Marine and Coastal Law, Vol 29, No 2, 2014, pp. 321-343.

Prip, Christian, G. Kristin Rosendal, Steinar Andresen and Morten Walløe Tvedt, The Australian ABS Framework: A Model Case for Bioprospecting?. FNI Report 1/2014. Lysaker, FNI, 2014, 42 p.

Tvedt, Morten Walløe, 'Patent Protection for Inventions Related to Farmed Fish in Norway and the EPO'. In Keith Culver and Kieran O'Doherty (eds), Fishing and Farming Iconic Species - Cod and Salmon and Social Issues in Genomic Science. Ottawa, Captus Press, 2013, pp. 160-182.

Tvedt, Morten Walløe, 'Disentangling Rights to Genetic Resources Illustrated by Aquaculture and Forest Sector'. Law Environment and Development Journal, Vol 9, No 3, 2013, pp. 3-20.

Tvedt, Morten Walløe and Peter Johan Schei, 'The Term 'Genetic Resources': Flexible and Dynamic while Providing Legal Certainty?'. In Oberthür, S. and G.K. Rosendal (eds), Global Governance of Genetic Resources: Access and Benefit Sharing after the Nagoya Protocol. London/New York, Routledge, 2014, pp. 18-32.

Tvedt, Morten Walløe, 'Beyond Nagoya: Towards a Legally Functional System of Access and Benefit-sharing'. In Oberthür, S. and G.K. Rosendal (eds), Global Governance of Genetic Resources: Access and Benefit Sharing after the Nagoya Protocol. London/New York, Routledge, 2014, pp. 158-177.

Tvedt, Morten Walløe and Ane E. Jørem, 'Bioprospecting in the High Seas: Regulatory Options for Benefit Sharing'. The Journal of World Intellectual Property, Vol 16, No 3-4, 2013, pp. 150-167.

Tvedt, Morten Walløe 'Common Pools in Aquaculture: Exploring Patent Law, ABS and Sui Generis Options'. In Kamau, Evanson Chege and Gerd Winter (eds), Common Pools of Genetic Resources - Equity and Innovation in International Biodiversity Law. London, Routledge, 2013, pp. 168-190.

Rosendal, G. Kristin, Ingrid Olesen and Morten Walløe Tvedt, 'Evolving Legal Regimes, Market Structures and Biology Affecting Access to and Protection of Aquaculture Genetic Resources'. Aquaculture, Published online 06.04.2013.

Medaglia, Jorge Cabrera, Morten Walløe Tvedt, Frederic Perron-Welch, Ane Jørem and Freedom-Kai Phillips, The Interface between the Nagoya Protocol on ABS and the ITPGRFA at the International Level: Potential Issues for Consideration in Supporting Mutually Supportive Implementation at the National Level. FNI Report 1/2013. Lysaker, FNI, 2013, 59 p. (Version française ici).

Tvedt, Morten Walløe and Ole Kristian Fauchald, 'Implementing the Nagoya Protocol on ABS: A Hypothetical Case Study on Enforcing Benefit Sharing in Norway'. The Journal of World Intellectual Property, Vol 14, No 5, 2011, pp. 383-402.

Tvedt, Morten Walløe, 'Patent law and bioprospecting in Antarctica'. Polar Record, Vol 47, No 1, 2010, pp. 46-55.

Tvedt, Morten Walløe, 'One Worldwide Patent System: What’s in It for Developing Countries?' Third World Quarterly, Vol 31, No 2, 2010, pp. 277-293.

Young, Tomme R. and Morten Walløe Tvedt, Balancing Building Blocks of a Functional ABS System. FNI Report 7/2009. Lysaker, FNI, 2009, 66 p.

Olesen, Ingrid, G. Kristin Rosendal, Morten Rye, Morten Walløe Tvedt and Hans B. Bentsen, 'Who Shall Own the Genes of Farmed Fish?'. In Hagen, I.J. and T.S. Halvorsen (eds), Global Privatization and Its Impact. Hauppauge (USA), Nova Science Publishers, 2009, pp. 103-113.

Tvedt, Morten Walløe and Magnus Finckenhagen, 'Scope of Process Patents in Farm Animal Breeding'. Journal of World Intellectual Property, Vol 11, No 3, 2008, pp. 203-228.

Tvedt, Morten Walløe, 'The Disclosure Obligation: Fair and Equitable Benefit Sharing?'. Environmental Policy and Law , Vol 38, Nos 1-2, 2008, pp. 100-107.

Tvedt, Morten Walløe, 'Patent Protection in the Field of Animal Breeding'. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section A - Animal Sciences , Vol 57, No 3, 2007, pp. 105-120.

Tvedt, Morten Walløe, S.J. Hiemstra, A.G. Drucker, N. Louwaars and J.K. Oldenbroek, 'Regulatory Options for Exchange, Use and Conservation of AnGR: A Closer Look at Property Right Issues'. Animal Genetic Resources Information, No 41, 2007, pp. 91-99.

Tvedt, Morten Walløe, 'The Path to One Universal Patent'. Environmental Policy and Law, Vol 37, No 4, 2007, pp. 297-305.

Tvedt, Morten Walløe, 'Elements for Legislation in User Countries to Meet the Fair and Equitable Benefit-Sharing Commitment'. Journal of World Intellectual Property, Vol 9, No 2, 2006, pp. 189-212.

Tvedt, Morten Walløe, 'How Will a Substantive Patent Law Treaty Affect the Public Domain for Genetic Resources and Biological Material'. The Journal of World Intellectual Property, Vol 8, No 3, 2005, pp. 311-344.

Tvedt, Morten Walløe, 'En rettspolitisk analyse av hvordan rettigheter til genetiske ressurser kan reguleres' ('An Analysis of How Exclusive Rights to Genetic Resources Can Be Organized'). Retfærd, Nordisk juridisk tidsskrift, Vol 110, 2005, pp. 70-92. In Norwegian.

Tvedt, Morten Walløe, 'Har noen eksklusive tinglige rettigheter til genetiske ressurser i Norge?' (The Legal Situation Regarding Exclusive Rights to Genetic Resources in Norway). Retfærd, Nordisk juridisk tidsskrift, Vol 109, May 2005, pp. 70-90. In Norwegian.

Most recent commentary article

Myhr, Anne Ingeborg, Kristin Rosendal and Morten Walløe Tvedt, 'Hvem eier det som finnes i havet?' ('Who owns what is found in the ocean?'),, 16.12.2015. In Norwegian.

Tvedt, Morten Walløe, 'Eiendomsrett i DNA-samfunnet' ('Property Rights in the DNA Society'), Morgenbladet, 19.04.2012. In Norwegian.

Tvedt, Morten Walløe, 'Patent hemmer innovasjon' ('Patent Hampers Innovation'), Trønder-Avisa, 10.04.2012. In Norwegian.

Tvedt, Morten Walløe, 'Hvem skal eie forskningen?' ('Who Should Own Research?'), Klassekampen, 20.03.2012. In Norwegian.

Tvedt, Morten Walløe, 'Norge vingler' ('Towards a World Patent: Norway Wavers'), Klassekampen, 16 July 2007. In Norwegian.

Tvedt, Morten Walløe, Hvorfor norsk EPO-medlemskap? ('Why Should Norway Become Member of the EPO?'), Nationen, 10 May 2007. In Norwegian.
 Contact details

   (+47) 67111925 / (+47) 90673230
   mwt (

 Related focal points of research

   Biodiversity and genetic resources

 Important ongoing projects

Biotechnology in Agriculture and Aquaculture – Effects of Intellectual Property Rights in the Food Production Chain

Enzyme Development for Norwegian Biomass (NorZymeD): Mining Norwegian Biodiversity for Seizing Norwegian Opportunities in the Bio-Based Economy

PatentEthics: Ethical Dimensions of Patent Law in Non-human Biotechnology

Intellectual Property Rights to Genetic Resources: Prospects for a Sui Generis Path for Developing countries

 Important past projects

The Access and Benefit Sharing Research Project (2009-2015)

Marine Bioprospecting and Law (2011-2015)

Stimulating Sustainable Innovation in Aquaculture (2009-2013)

Developing and Implementing Advanced Molecular Methods, and Streamlining Access to and Use of Aquaculture Genetic Resources: Carp and Shrimp in India (2008-2013).

Evaluation of Need for Legislation on Access and Rights to Forest Genetic Resources in the Nordic Region

Bioprospecting in the Antarctic: Exploring Options for the Legal Framework

Beyond Access – Implementation of CBD in Developed Countries

Animal Genetic Resources: Legal Regulation of Aspects Property Rights to Animal Genes Genetic Resources, Breeding and Related Knowledge

Fridtjof Nansen Institute
P.O. Box 326, 1326 Lysaker, Norway. Tel: (+47) 67111900 / E-mail: post (