FNI Publications 1996

This 1996 list of publications from the Fridtjof Nansen Institute is presented in the following categories:

  • ARTICLES published in scientific journals, anthologies, yearbooks, proceedings etc. with peer review 
  • ARTICLES published in other scientific, academic journals and anthologies 
  • BOOKS (monographies, anthologies) 
  • REPORTS published outside the Institute 
  • RESEARCH REPORTS (R), which are based on research activities at the Fridtjof Nansen Institute itself, not falling into the special categories below. 
  • NOTES (N), which are popularised studies based on previously published research or ongoing studies 
  • EED REPORTS (EED), which are reports from a joint research programme by Center for Economic Analysis - ECON and the Fridtjof Nansen Institute on Energy, Environment and Development - Third world strategies and international co-operation 
  • INSROP WORKING PAPERS - a series from the International Northern Sea Route Programme 
  • DEVELOPMENT AND MULTILATERAL INSTITUTIONS - WORKING PAPERS - a comprehensive, inter-disciplinary research effort on the multilateral system, with particular focus on the World Bank and on the United Nations and its specialised agencies. 
  • POLAR OCEANS REPORTS - a series from the Polar Oceans and the Law of the Sea Project (POLOS) 
  • PUBLICATIONS AIMED AT THE GENERAL PUBLIC (newspaper articles, newsletters etc.) 
A summary in English is given for each publication. All publications published at the Institute can be ordered from the Institute. 

Ordering information, including price list and order form, can be found on the last page.


Articles published in scientific 
journals, anthologies, yearbooks, 
proceedings etc. with peer review

Anderson, David G.
The Aboriginal Peoples of the Lower Yenisey Valley: An Ethnographic Overview of Recent Political Developments in North Central Siberia. Pp. 184-218 in: Polar Geography. Vol 19, No 3 (1995)
A survey of the impacts of the modernisation and post-Soviet social, economic and political change on the native peoples of the Lower Yenisey Valley. Focus on changes in indigenous lifestyles in light of the privatisation of resources, devolution of political power, and curtailment of state subsidies in the northern economy. 

Andresen, Steinar
Implementation of international environmental commitments: the case of the Northern Seas. Pp. 149-167 in: The Science of the Total Environment: An International Journal for Scientific Research into the Environment and its Relationship with Man. No 186, 1996. ISSN 0048-9697. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science BV.
This paper sets out to discuss the 'effectiveness' of two regional regimes; The North Sea/North-East Atlantic and the Baltic. Effectiveness is conceived of in terms of outputs; decisions flowing from the regime, outcome; behavioural change resulting from the regime, and finally impact; consequences of the regime for the natural environment. 

Bergesen, Helge Ole and Botnen, Trond K.
Sustainable Principles or Sustainable Institutions? The Long Way from UNCED to the Commission on Sustainable Development. Pp. 36-62 in: Forum for Development Studies. 1996, no. 1
The purpose of this paper is to develop an analytical framework that makes it possible to evaluate the contents of political commitment, as expressed by UN conferences; and to explore the potential of this approach in an empirical study of the UN Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD), the institutional outcome of UNCED. 

Brubaker, Douglas
Russian Arctic Straits under International Law. Pp. 293-302 in: Northern Sea Route: Future and Perspective. The Proceedings of INSROP Symposium Tokyo '95 / edited by Hiromitsu Kitagawa. Tokyo: Ship & Ocean Foundation, l996. 
The Russians claim the Russian Arctic straits as internal waters under several theories, and the U.S. claims transit passage through the same under the LOSC straits regime. The analysis must therefore address first the ascertainable limits of the relevant international regimes and then compare the State practice in the Russian Arctic with these regimes. From this conclusions are made and proposals for further resolution forwarded. 

Dahl, Agnethe
EU eller EØS, to sider av samme sak for norsk miljøpolitikk? (EU or EEA: No great difference for Norwegian environmental policy?) Pp. 345-357 in: International Politikk. Vol 54, No 3 (1996). In Norwegian.
In the debate prior to the referendum on EU membership in 1994 there was little focus on the fact that by saying no, Norway would relate to the EU on the basis of the EEA agreement. This article shows that there is no great difference for Norwegian environmental policy between full EU membership and relating to the EU on the basis of the EEA agreement. The EEA agreement gives very much the same legal restrictions as the Union Treaty where development of national environmental policy is concerned. 

Estrada, Javier
The transformation of the European gas market. Pp. 141-160 in: Energy Studies Review. Vol 7, No 2 (1995)
European gas markets have grown to a very large size, and further substantial expansion is envisaged for the coming decades. This article explores the preconditions and modes for the future expansion of the gas market. It juxtaposes the "policy driven" model for gas market growth versus the "do-nothing" model, and concludes that the latter will predominate, supplemented by policy elements to assure supply security and the full environmental benefits of gas. 

Herr, Richard A. and Bruce W. Davis
ATS Decision-Making and Change: The Role of Domestic Politics in Australia. Pp. 331-360 in: Governing the Antarctic: The Effectiveness and Legitimacy of the Antarctic Treaty System / ed. by Olav Schram Stokke and Davor Vidas. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996. xxii, 464 pp. ISBN 0-521-57237-1. 
By reviewing the domestic institutions and agencies which contribute to the making of Australian policy on Antarctica, this chapter seeks to show that this process has become more open in terms of public participation, and that the final policy product is framed with both domestic and foreign consumers in mind. 

Hønneland, Geir B.
Identitet og funksjonalitet i Barentsregionen (Identity and functionality in the Barents Region). Pp 3-32 in: Internasjonal Politikk. Vol 54, No 1 (1996). In Norwegian. 
The possibility of creating a functional Barents region as well as a common transnational northern identity is discussed in the article. Special notice is given to the different cultural heritage of the Russian and Nordic populations of the area. The claim is made that the "differentness" of Russians, as opposed to people in the Nordic countries, is not primarily the result of 70 years of Communist rule. Russian identity has been formed in a cultural context quite different from that of Western Europe. The world view of Orthodox Christianity, the heritage of the Mongolian Yoke, the absence of a Renaissance, and centuries of autocratic rule are all foundation stones in the formation of a specific Russian identity. The consequences of this for the region-building project are by no means obvious, but the assertion is made that insufficient consideration is given to these issues in the existing literature on the Barents region.

Kryukov, V., Shmat, V. and Moe, Arild
West Siberian Oil and the Northern Sea Route: Current Situation and the Future Potential. Pp. 219-235 in: Polar Geography. Vol 19, No 3 (1995). 
The article explores interrelationships between the development of oil and gas condensate deposits in Northwestern Siberia and usage of the Northern Sea Route. It is argued that the resource potential for such development is quite large and that the NSR forms a realistic alternative to connection to the trunk pipeline network. (Also published as an INSROP working paper.) 

Laugen, Torunn
Balancing Effectiveness and Legitimacy: UNICEF's Follow-up of the World Summit for Children. Pp. 63-86 in: Forum for Development Studies. 1996, no. 1. 
This article focuses on two critical aspects of international organisations: effectiveness and legitimacy. The two aspects are to some extent interlinked and may be mutually reinforcing, but they could also be conflicting. The article examines how one of the UN development agencies - The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) - is trying to balance these demands. 

Laugen, Torunn and Leiv Lunde
Development Assistance and the Integration of Environmental Concerns: Current Status and Future Challenges. Pp. 81-90 in: Green Globe Yearbook 1996 / ed. by Helge Ole Bergesen et al. Oxford, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996. 368 pp.

The article provides 

  • an overview over environmental challenges to development aid, including a discussion of the trade-offs between environmental and other aid goals, 
  • a summary of key findings of the evaluation of Norwegian aid performance in the environmental field; and 
  • proposals for policy reform based on these findings. 
Osherenko, Gail
Indigenous Political and Property Rights and Economic/Environmental Reform in Northwest Siberia. Pp. 225-237 in: Post-Soviet Geography. Vol 36, No 4 (1995) 
Change affecting land tenure relationships and traditional economies of northern peoples as a result of oil/gas development is outlined. Emphasis on Yamal Peninsula. Several models for transfer of land rights from state farm ownership presented. 

Osherenko, Gail
Property Rights and Transformation in Russia: Institutional Change in the Far North. Pp. 1077-1108 in: Europe-Asia Studies. Vol 47, No 7 (1995)
This is a study of the transformation of the property rights systems on the Yamal Peninsula.

Simonsen, Henning
Perceptions and Relations between Russia and Its Northeast Asian Neighbours - A Stumbling Block to Co-operation in the Russian Arctic? Pp. 329-338 in: Northern Sea Route: Future and Perspective. The Proceedings of INSROP Symposium Tokyo'95 / edited by Hiromitsu Kitagawa. Tokyo: Ship & Ocean Foundation, 1996. 
Non-Russian Asia does not border on the Arctic and has no tradition for "looking" north. This article none the less takes a "northern" view of Northeast Asia. The article briefly looks at the following questions: 

  • What are the main perceptions (and misperceptions) that exist between Russia/the Russian Far East (RFE) and its Northeast Asian neighbours?; 
  • How do these perceptions hinder enhanced co-operation between Russia/RFE and its Northeast Asian neighbours?; and 
  • Does co-operation in the Russian Arctic between Russia/RFE and its Northeast Asian neighbours have a future? 
Skjærseth, Jon Birger
The 20th Anniversary of the Mediterranean Action Plan: Reason to Celebrate? Pp. 57-53 in: Green Globe Yearbook 1996 / ed. by Helge Ole Bergesen et al. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 368 pp. ISBN 0-19-823345-0
This article seeks to evaluate the achievements of the legal component included in the Mediterranean Action Plan. Important criteria applied are international institutional responses to pollution problems in the Mediterranean Sea as well as domestic implementation of the joint commitments adopted. A major problem of the Action Plan seems to be a too large scope at the expense of stringency of measures, compared to resources actually available. Thus, the article concludes that there is a need to make clear and realistic priorities for the future at the expense of other sensible, but less crucial, activities within the Mediterranean Action Plan. 

Stokke, Olav Schram 
The Effectiveness of CCAMLR. Pp. 120-151 in: Governing the Antarctic: The Effectiveness and Legitimacy of the Antarctic Treaty System / ed. by Olav Schram Stokke and Davor Vidas. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996. xxii, 464 pp. ISBN 0-521-57237-1
In this chapter the effectiveness of the Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources - CCAMLR - is assessed. First, the main features of the regime are outlined. Then follows an analysis of the specific problems which prompted the Consultative Parties to negotiate CCAMLR. Finally, there is an assessment of how CCAMLR affects the solution of these problems, paying particular attention to how that impact occurs. 

Stokke, Olav Schram 
The Fridtjof Nansen Institute. Pp. 8-9 in: WWF Arctic Bulletin. 1996, no. 3. 
Short presentation of Arctic work at the FNI.

Stokke, Olav Schram 
The Making of Norwegian Antarctic Policy. Pp. 384-408 in: Governing the Antarctic: The Effectiveness and Legitimacy of the Antarctic Treaty System / ed. by Olav Schram Stokke and Davor Vidas. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996. xxii, 464 pp. ISBN 0-521-57237-1.
Questions pursued in this chapter are: What is the intensity and the kind of concerns found in the societal debate over Norway's policy in Antarctic affairs? To what extent is this debate reflected in the domestic policy-making process? And how do these interests and decision-making patterns affect Norway's positions and role in the four regime projects: fisheries, minerals activities, environmental protection and tourism. 

Stokke, Olav Schram and Davor Vidas
Conclusions. Pp. 432-456 in: Governing the Antarctic: The Effectiveness and Legitimacy of the Antarctic Treaty System / ed. by Olav Schram Stokke and Davor Vidas. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996. xxii, 464 pp. ISBN 0-521-57237-1 
This book has examined the effectiveness and legitimacy of the Antarctic Treaty System by analysis carried out at three levels. In Part II, we scrutinised the international setting of the Treaty co-operation, highlighting tensions and compatibility between the ATS and the wider international community regarding salient norms and decision-making structures. A domestic counterpart to this was provided in Part V, through in-depth case-studies of the interest and decision-making patterns of four Consultative Parties to the Antarctic Treaty. And in Parts III and IV, we have tried to bring out how these wider international and domestic settings influence the effectiveness and legitimacy of individual ATS regimes. The purpose of this final Chapter is to draw these threads together. 

Stokke, Olav Schram and Davor Vidas
Effectiveness and legitimacy of international regimes. Pp. 13-31 in: Governing the Antarctic: The Effectiveness and Legitimacy of the Antarctic Treaty System / ed. by Olav Schram Stokke and Davor Vidas. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996. xxii, 464 pp. ISBN 0-521-57237-1.
This book chapter develops the overall analytical framework of the book, by narrowing in on the concepts of international regimes, regime effectiveness and regime legitimacy - as well as the interaction between effectiveness and legitimacy. Those concepts are defined, discussed and operationalized in order to guide the research reported in the rest of the book. 

Sverdrup, Liv Astrid
Regioner i EU - tyske delstaters politikk overfor EU (Regions in the EU - the German policy towards the EU). In Norwegian. Pp. 229-243 in: Nordisk Administrativt Tidsskrift. Vol 77, No 3 (1996) 
The aim of this article is to show how the individual German states have sought to strengthen their chances of influencing the shaping of EU policy. It ends with a discussion about the extent to which the states' policies towards the EU will strengthen or weaken Germany's position in the EU. 

Sydnes, Anne Kristin
Norwegian Climate Policy: Environmental Idealism and Economic Realism. Pp. 268-298 in: Politics of Climate Change: A European perspective / edited by Tim O'Riordan and Jill Jäger. London: Routledge, 1996. ISBN 0-415-12574-X.
The tension between Norway's leadership ambitions in international climate politics on the one hand and its role as petroleum exporter on the other forms the political framework for this chapter. The author holds that taking into account the dilemmas facing Norwegian authorities in this field, they seem to be faced with the following options: 

  • concede that stabilisation, not to mention reduction of CO2 emissions in Norway, is politically impossible, and thereby risk a severe blow to its reputation as an environmental front-runner 
  • impose draconian measures on the transport, petroleum and industrial sectors, and risk resulting economic losses and increased uneven distribution of wealth and 
  • seek credible partners for joint implementation and present a scheme for international authorisation, either to future Conferences of the parties or to the European Union. 
Vidas, Davor
Cold by Nature: Some Aspects of International Protection of the Marine Environment in Polar Regions. Pp. 129-161 in: Study of Comparative and International Law. Vol. 24, no. 26 (1996). Special issue "Essays on the New Law of the Sea - 3"/edited by Budislav Vukas. 
International co-operative efforts in respect of both the Arctic and the Antarctic regions have in recent years come to share one significant similarity, namely a strong emphasis being placed by the states involved on the international protection of their environment in general, and the marine environment in particular. However, a look at the current state of international measures for environmental protection of the two polar oceans might well suggest a somewhat paradoxical situation. In respect of the marine environment of one polar region - the Arctic - which appears more endangered in environmental terms, policy-makers do not see the need for any new international legal regulation, which would add a regional level to its protection. Those dealing with the Antarctic, where sources of pollution apparently exert far less threat to the environment, found it on the contrary necessary to adopt new legally binding rules, in order to cope with the regional situation - regionally. Is the need for a regional marine environmental protection in the Arctic underestimated, or is such need in respect of the Antarctic marine environment overestimated? Or, perhaps, the issue is neither solely, nor even primarily, a matter of environmental needs, be they regional or not? The attempt made in this article aims at addressing some of the aspects of that dilemma by a comparative description and analysis of the approaches employed in the protection of the marine environment through international regional co-operation in respect of the two polar oceans. 

Vidas, Davor
The Antarctic Treaty System and the law of the sea: a new dimension introduced by the Protocol. Pp. 61-90 in: Governing the Antarctic: The Effectiveness and Legitimacy of the Antarctic Treaty System / ed. by Olav Schram Stokke and Davor Vidas. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996. xxii, 464 s. ISBN 0-521-57237-1 
The report aims at exploring the relationship between the Antarctic Treaty System (ATS) and the law of the sea, with focus on the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (LOS Convention) and changes introduced in the ATS by the 1991 Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty (Protocol). In this context, the scope of the report is limited by its twofold purpose. Firstly, it attempts to provide an overview, or a general "balance" of the development of the ATS - law of the sea relationship since the adoption of the 1959 Antarctic Treaty. Secondly, it concentrates on the most recent phase introduced by the Protocol, arguing that it has introduced a substantially new dimension in the ATS - law of the sea relationship with respect to the status of the Antarctic submarine areas. 

Vidas, Davor
The Antarctic Treaty System in the international community: an overview. Pp. 35-60 in: Governing the Antarctic: The Effectiveness and Legitimacy of the Antarctic Treaty System / ed. by Olav Schram Stokke and Davor Vidas. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996. xxii, 464s. ISBN 0-521-57237-1.
The Antarctic Treaty System (ATS) fits into the broad spectrum of institutions and mechanisms that exist within the international community, yet it evolved as a system with certain special political and legal characteristics. This situation is assessed in this report through the analysis of two broad sets of questions: First, in relation to the notion of the ATS: is the ATS really a "system", as its name implies, and if so in what sense is the notion of system used in the ATS context (what are its components and how are they interrelated)? Second, in relation to the standing of the ATS in the international community: what were the reasons for the relative isolation of the ATS from the international community in the ATS' early phase of development, and how and why did that situation begin to change? Finally, how and why did this development eventually change the mode of relationship between the ATS and the wider international community? 

Vidas, Davor
The legitimacy of the Antarctic tourism regime. Pp. 294-320 in: Governing the Antarctic: The Effectiveness and Legitimacy of the Antarctic Treaty System / ed. by Olav Schram Stokke and Davor Vidas. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996. xxii, 464 s. ISBN 0-521-57237-1
This chapter applies the analytical approach to the legitimacy of international regimes, as developed in Chapter 1 of the book, to elaborate various elements of an evolving regime for Antarctic tourism within the Antarctic Treaty System (ATS). The discussion is organised in the following way: First, we look at the main challenges which Antarctic tourism poses for the ATS. Second, we turn to the question of ATS adaptation to these challenges, and assess developments towards the regulation of Antarctic tourism. This, in turn, provides us with conclusions regarding the ability of the ATS to adapt to challenges in this area. Finally, we consider the level of acceptance by the relevant groups of subjects as well as the applicability to Antarctic tourism of the regulation which has been created within the ATS. 

Voisey, Heather, Christiane Beuermann, Liv Astrid Sverdrup and Tim O'Riordan
The Political Significance of Local Agenda 21: the early stages of some European experience. Pp. 33-50 in: Local Environment. Vol 1, No 1 (1996)
Sustainable development, as it emerged in Agenda 21 from the Rio conference in 1992, will only be meaningful when it touches the lives of ordinary people; then it becomes reality. Local Agenda 21 (LA21) seeks to achieve that objective. This article assesses the origins of LA21, reviews its social and political significance, and considers its prospects in the light of case study experience emerging from the UK, Germany and Norway, focusing on the role of local government as a major stakeholder in Agenda 21. The range of response to LA21 has proved to be varied. A successful transformation to a more sustainable world will require visionary political leadership, supportive administrations, networks of experience sharing, alliances with non-governmental organisations and local industry, and effective community mobilisation. All of that, in turn, requires equally supportive economic and social policy backing from national governments. This article will indicate that, not surprisingly, it is the domestic political context, nationally and locally, which in the main determines the speed and nature of response to LA21, now and in the future. By understanding and being aware of these contexts, factors impeding progress towards LA21 may be addressed, whilst at the same time retaining the diversity of response which is an essential part of local sustainability. 

Østreng, Willy
Environmental Security and the NSR: A Pan-Arctic Challenge? 10 pp. in: Northern Sea Route: Future and Perspective / ed. by Hiromitsu Kitagawa. The Proceedings of the INSROP Symposium Tokyo'95. Tokyo 1996: Ship and Ocean Foundation, 1996. 
The overall purpose of this article is to assess the fragility, vulnerability and functioning of the Arctic bioregion with the aim to show how the opening of the NSR to international shipping, may affect the bioregional interconnectedness of the Arctic and enhance the community-interests of the Arctic states in the context of environmental security. 

Østreng, Willy
Introduction to INSROP. 12 pp. in: Northern Sea Route: Future and Perspective / ed. by Hiromitsu Kitagawa. The Proceedings of the INSROP Symposium Tokyo'95. Tokyo 1996: Ship and Ocean Foundation, 1996.
The aim of the article is to give an account of the purpose, history, vision, challenge, research philosophy and organisation of the International Northern Sea Route Programme (INSROP), commenced in 1993 
 

Articles published in other
scientific, academic journals 
and anthologies

Andresen, Steinar
Effectiveness and Implementation within the "North Sea/North East Atlantic Co-operation": Development, Status and Future Perspectives. Pp. 60-83 in: Nordic research project on The effectiveness of multilateral environmental agreements: Second publication - workshop proceedings and study reports. (NORD 1996:18). Copenhagen: Nordic Council of Ministers, 1996. 193 + 44 pp. ISBN 92-9120-887-6
Overall it appears that the effectiveness of this co-operative venture has increased over time; measures have tended to become more stringent, more domestic implementation is taking place and the environmental quality is probably improving. However, there are variations in effectiveness between different regime components. Not surprisingly, the 'easier' problems like dumping have been more effectively dealt with than e.g. land-based pollution. The reason for the general increase in effectiveness for the whole regime, however, is a combination of external pressure and matching institutions. The 'dual strategy' of high level political pressure brought about by the North Sea Conferences and the more stable permanent and technical Commission structure is particularly interesting as a potential model for other cooperations as well. 

Dahl, Agnethe and Liv Astrid Sverdrup
Etter Norges Nei til EU: Stortinget på Sidelinjen? (After Norway's no to the EU: A marginalisation of the Parliament?). Pp. 21-23 in: Tiden Tegn. Vol 4, No 6 (1996). In Norwegian.
Since January 1994, Norway has been part of the European Economic Agreement (EEA) which implies that Norway has integrated a large part of the EU regulation in national law. What role does the national parliament play in the development of EU/EEA regulation? The EEA agreement opens up for Norwegian input into the decision-making process but Norway has no formal influence on the final decision. Norway can however use its right to veto new EU/EEA regulation; the government can do so in the EEA committee in Brussels where it meets the Commission. If the new regulations imply changes in national law the Stortinget must take part in the process and can veto the new legislation. However, the right to veto has never been used either by the government or by the Parliament. The actual possibility to influence the development of new EU/EEA regulation is to take part in the decision-making process from the very beginning. We conclude that today the national parliament has little influence on the development of new EU/EEA regulations. 

Fixdal, Jon
Developing countries and the transfer of ocean mining technology: some key issues. Pp. 158-167 in: Industrial utilisation of marine non-living resources. New York: UNIDO, 1996. vii, 235 pp. 
The article starts by giving a short introduction to polymetallic nodules and an explanation why these may represent an important future mineral supply source for developing countries. The term 'technology transfer' is thereupon defined as three different flows of technology and expertise. A brief description is then given of three frequently encountered problems of technology transfer: the lack of long term effect on the recipient's production and technology capabilities, the long term dependency on hired, skilled personnel to operate and maintain the transferred technology, and the extremely high costs the transfer process involves. A tentative explanation is then given to explain why the complex system character, and then to some extent limited availability of ocean mining technology, may influence developing countries with poorly developed technological and managerial skills exposing them to such problems if they should engage in technology transfer of ocean mining technology, and why this necessitates distinguishing between various categories of recipient countries. 

Markussen, Jan Magne
Exploitation of polymetallic nodules: the role of developing countries. Pp. 149-157 in: Industrial utilisation of marine non-living resources. New York: United Nations Industrial Development Organization UNIDO, 1996. vii, 235 pp.
The aim of this paper is to evaluate the status and prospects for commercial exploitation of deep seabed minerals. Special attention is paid to aspects of interest to developing countries. The article gives first a brief review of international status, then the author looks at deep seabed technology, environmental consequences and political-legal aspects. Finally, the prospects for commercial exploitation, including the economic aspects, are viewed. 

Martinsen, Kåre Dahl
Økonomiske forbindelser mellom Norge og Mellom-Europa. (Economic relations between Norway and Central-Europe). In Norwegian. 15 pp. in: Norge og Mellom-Europa. Oslo: The Norwegian Foreign Ministry, 1996.
Focus is given to the economic and political changes resulting from growing co-operation between Central Europe and the European Union. What the potential consequences of the integration will be, both for the countries outside and inside the Union are assessed. According to most predictions, expansion will lead to a watered-down integration process. Here an alternative scenario where expansion leads to a revision of decision-making and spending in the Union is presented as more likely. Finally, the consequences for Norway are assessed. A summary of the efforts undertaken so far and a review of the suggestions for expanding Norwegian trade with the region are provided. The need for know-how concerning the economic and political development in the countries concerned is emphasised. Without an expansion of trade and know-how, Norwegian marginalisation will continue, especially since our Nordic neighbours have embarked upon a strategy of increased research on the economic developments in the regions to aid business interests. 

Vidas, Davor
Environmental Management in the Antarctic under the Madrid Protocol: Concluding remarks. Pp. 81-83 in: "On the Antarctic Horizon". Proceedings of the Symposium 'Future of the Antarctic Treaty System'/ edited by A. Jackson. Hobart: Australian Antarctic Division, 1996. 
This paper briefly assesses the success of the 1991 Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty. In doing so, it proceeds from three perspectives. First, it examines the success of the Protocol by comparing it with environmental arrangements or processes in other regions (e.g. in the Arctic). Second, it inquires into the degree of recognition the Protocol has received. And finally, it invites the Antarctic Treaty parties to approach the Protocol by the third, perhaps the most painful way of measuring success: by self-examination of what has been really changed or achieved by the Protocol. 

Wettestad, Jørgen
The Convention on Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution: More "Discursive Diplomacy" than "Dashing Design"? Pp. 83-104 in: Nordic research project on The effectiveness of multilateral environmental agreements: Second publication - workshop proceedings and study reports. (NORD 1996:18). Copenhagen: Nordic Council of Ministers, 1996. 193 + 44 pp. ISBN 92-9120-887-6. 
This study discusses the effectiveness of the Convention on Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP) and especially the role of the institutional design of the regime. Aspects like access and participation, decision-making rules, the role of the secretariat, and verification and compliance procedures are discussed. The conclusion is that although positive and negative institutional aspects can be tentatively discerned, the "discursive" knowledge-improving and gradual learning aspect of the regime stands out as the regime's perhaps strongest asset.

Østreng, Willy
The Post-Cold War Arctic: Challenges and Transition during the 1990s. 9 pp. in: Preliminary summary from the Nordic Policy Seminar on Arctic Development and Environmental Challenges. Scandinavian Seminar College/UNEP-GRID Arendal/Fridtjof Nansen Institute. Arendal: GRID Arendal, 1996.
Four sets of interrelated processes have brought important changes to the post Cold War Arctic: 1. a reconceptualization of regional security, 2. civilianization. i.e. the multiplying of co-operative regimes in civil issue areas, 3. a regionalization of decision-making processes, and 4. a mobilisation of non-state actors in Arctic policy formation. The purpose of this article is to discuss the role of these processes in maintaining, furthering and enhancing international collaboration, based on the unique status of the environment as an object of regional co-operation and security among the Arctic states. 
 

BOOKS (monographies, anthologies)

Bergesen, Helge Ole and Georg Parmann (eds.)
Green Globe Yearbook 1996. Press, Oxford: Oxford University 1996. 368 pp.
The Green Globe Yearbook aims to demonstrate to a world-wide readership where the international community stands with regard to solving specific environment and development problems through international cooperation; what the main obstacles are to effective solutions; and what must be done to overcome them. The Yearbook is composed of two separate parts: evaluation and reference.The section contains key data on reference international agreements on environment and development and intergovernmental organisations with activities in this area. The 1996 volume is expanded with a new subsection, Country Profilessummarising the performance, main commitments, and , objectives in thirteen OECD countries in relation to international co-operation on environment and sustainable development. The evaluation sectionwritten by leading, comprises articles independent experts, which give the reader an up-to-date assessment of the realities behind the formal set-up described in the reference section. 

Kryukov, Valery and Arild Moe
Gazprom: Internal structure, management principles and financial flows. London: Royal Institute of International Affairs, 1996.115 pp. ISBN 1-86203-011-1.
This study investigates the roots of the Russian gas company Gazprom and analyses its present organisation, structure of management and financial flows with a view to explaining how this vast organisation is held together and predicting the most probable pattern of development in the company. 

Stokke, Olav Schram and Davor Vidas (eds)
Governing the Antarctic: The Effectiveness and Legitimacy of the Antarctic Treaty System. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996. xxii, 464 s. ISBN 0-521-57237-1.
After thirty-five years, the regime based on the Antarctic Treaty is more vigorous than ever. Here leading scholars of international law and international relations examine the effectiveness and legitimacy of this regime by asking two questions: are current changes affecting the ability of this regime to cope with major problems in the region, and how do those changes affect its standing among parties to the Treaty and in the wider international community? Individual chapters deal with Antarctic regimes for marine living resources, mineral activities, environmental protection and tourism. Throughout, a keen eye is kept on how those components interact and reinforce each other. This analysis is supported by in-depth studies of compatibility and tension between the Antarctic Treaty System and the international community at large. It also draws upon case studies of how domestic concerns and decision-making in four selected countries affect international co-operation in the Antarctic. 
 

REPORTS published outside the Institute

Kryukov, Valery and Arild Moe
The new Russian corporatism? A case study of Gazprom. London: Royal Institute of International Affairs, 1996. 39 pp. ISBN 1-899658-71-8. 
This paper explains and analyses the development and structure of the Russian gas company, Gazprom, in order to understand the operation of the largest commercial organisation in Russia, one of the strongest institutions in the new Russian economic and political environment. 

Wettestad, Jørgen
Acid Lessons? Assessing and Explaining LRTAP Implementation and Effectiveness. Laxenburg, Austria: International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis IIASA, 1996. 74 pp. (IIASA Working Paper; WP-96-18). 
The report reviews current literature on LRTAP implementation and effectiveness and suggests ten, main "acid answers" based on the literature so far - related to issues such as compliance, problem-solving so far, important domestic causal factors and perspectives, and the more specific importance of the LRTAP regime. Among other things, research so far seems to have been mainly complementary and institutional access and participation issues as well as the EC-LRTAP interplay are among the main challenges for further research. 
 

RESEARCH REPORTS (R)

R:001-1996 cancelled 

Dahl, Agnethe and Liv Astrid Sverdrup
Hvordan påvirke innenfor når man står utenfor? Norske aktørers muligheter til å påvirke EUs miljøpolitikk i en EØS-kontekst. (How do you influence the EU when you are not a member? Norwegian actors' possibilities to influence the EU environmental policy within an EEA context). In Norwegian. Lysaker: Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 58 pp. (R:002-1996)
Norway's possibility to influence EU policy as an EEA country is limited. The EEA agreement opens up for some participation in the decision-making process. Just as important are the already established informal channels for influence in the EU political system which Norwegian political actors may use. The report seeks to reveal to what extent Norwegian political actors participate in the EU/EEA decision-making process and what they might do to increase their influence in the development of future EU/EEA policy. 

Martinsen, Kåre Dahl and Castberg, Rune
Tilleggsevaluering av Handlingsprogrammet for Øst-Europa: Miljøvern. (Supplementary evaluation of the Norwegian assistance program for Eastern Europe: Environmental protection). Lysaker: The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 46 pp. (R:003-1996) 
This evaluation focuses on the outcome of projects concerning environmental protection in north-east Russia, the Baltic Republics and Poland. Particular attention is given to projects implemented on the Kola Peninsula and in Lithuania. 

Dahl, Agnethe and Liv Astrid Sverdrup
Lobbying the European Parliament - Some Early Experience in the Field of Environmental Policy. Lysaker: The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 44 pp. (R:004) 
The European Parliament has during the last years increased its influence in the EU decision-making system. For Norway, as an EEA country, this is of special interest, since the European Parliament is known to be particularly open to lobbying from external actors. 

The study focuses on who, what and how to lobby the European Parliament in order to influence the EU decision-making process in the most efficient manner. 
 

NOTES (N)

Eikeland, Per Ove
Utslipp, spredning av og eksponering for miljøgifter - globale trender (Emissions, transport of and exposure to hazardous chemicals: global trends). Lysaker: The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 20 pp., 25 ls. (N:001, 1996)
The working paper presents global trends in emissions of hazardous chemicals and pesticides, as well as heavy metals. A sketch of the global fractionation process, i.e. the transport of chemicals and metals through the atmosphere, is provided. Finally, the paper discusses issues related to exposure to chemicals and heavy metals. 

Andresen, Steinar and Wettestad, Jørgen
Norsk internasjonal miljøpolitikk: interesser, roller og muligheter (Norwegian international environmental politics: interests, roles and possibilities). Lysaker: The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 12 pp. (N:002-1996)
The note discusses possible priorities in Norwegian international environmental politics. With regard to general priorities, a long-term perspective is recommended, as well as focus on implementation and reporting procedures. Regarding the relationship between the bilateral, global and regional levels, more focus on the regional and bilateral levels is recommended.

Andresen, Steinar and Wettestad, Jørgen
EUs økende rolle i internasjonalt miljøsamarbeid: utfordringer og muligheter for Norge. (The increasing importance of the European Community in international environmental cooperation: challenges and possibilities.). Lysaker: The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 27 pp. (N:003-96)
The note discusses four main questions related to the role and importance of the EC in international environmental politics: 1) to what extent is the weight and importance of the EC increasing; at different levels and in different fora? 2) if the EC's role as a bloc is increasing, does that automatically mean that the role of the EC Com

Dahl, Agnethe og Liv Astrid Sverdrup
Miljø- og industrigruppers lobbying overfor EU. (The Environment and The Industry lobby in the EU). In Norwegian. Lysaker: The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 15 pp. (N:004, 1996) 
Lobbying is an important part of the EU decision-making system. After the Single European Act entered into force there has been a constant increase in the amount of lobby groups working in Brussels. For Norway as an EEA country, with few formal channels for political influence, lobby will be an important channel for influence. Whenever there are common interests the environmental and the industry lobby are important allies for the Norwegian government. This paper gives a short presentation of the environment and industry lobby in Brussels and we try to identify who the most central actors in these lobbygroups are, how they are organised and how they work. 

Dahl, Agnethe
Minimums- og maksimumsdirektiver i EUs miljølovgivning: konsekvenser for nasjonal handlefrihet. (Minimum and Maximum directives in EU Environmental Regulation: consequences for national freedom of action). In Norwegian. Lysaker: The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 13 pp. (N:005-1996) 
Do the environment ambitious member states have more stringent environmental regulations when the EU has made minimum directives? This paper tries to answer this question and also discusses in a more general manner the relationship between environmental regulation based on articles 130r-t and 100a. 

EED REPORTS (EED)

Malnes, Raino
The formation of belief about risk: the case of the "Greenhouse Theory". Lysaker: The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 82 pp. (EED 1/96)
This study will address itself to two tasks. First, it is an attempt to bring out the rationality of the process through which an alarmist belief about the risk of climate change has gained a foothold in public opinion. This is done by confronting the rationalist perspective on beliefs with competing analytical positions. Second, the study aims at deepening our general understanding of how rational beliefs about risk take shape. 

Andersen, Regine
Challenges for a Sustainable Electricity Sector in Karnataka. Lysaker: The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 98 pp. (EED 2/96) The electricity sector in India is in deep crisis. Non-availability of power is likely to be the single most critical constraint to development in the coming years. The environmental challenges are comprehensive. This report is a case study from one of the Indian states. It examines options and barriers to sustainable electricity strategies. 
 

INSROP WORKING PAPERS
Historical and Current Uses of the Northern Sea Route: Part 1. Lysaker: The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 58 pp. (INSROP Working Paper no. 28, 1996)
This report covers the history of the Northern Sea Route (NSR) from the 16th century until the 1990s; its exploration and use through the ages, the contribution of different nations to its exploration and exploitation, political consolidation of the area under the old Russian regime and the use of the NSR by Soviets to motivate their claim to sovereignty over adjacent territories and islands in the Arctic Ocean. 

Zacharov, Victor and Baskin, Alexander

Perspective Research. Lysaker: The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 58 pp. (INSROP Working Paper no. 29, 1996)
Natural conditions in the Arctic experience strong seasonal changes. A rational organisation of transit transportation is possible in these conditions only if based on knowledge of the current and expected ice state on the route. On the basis of study and analysis of the current state of forecasting climate and ice conditions in Arctic waters, this report concludes that the situation is satisfactory only with regard to the study and description of the phenomenon of the change of the climate and ice conditions. Inadequate progress has been made in understanding the underlying causes of this phenomenon, and in the knowledge of the advance mechanisms.

Tsoy, Loly
Requirements for Ice Performance of Large Ships with Shallow Draft. Lysaker: The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 46 pp. (INSROP Working Paper no. 30, 1996)

The results of experimental investigations of the influence of the small draft of large ice ships on the hull form and icebreaking capability are summarised and analysed. Evaluation is given of the dependence of the power efficiently processed by propellers upon the ship's draft. The effect of the small under-keel clearance on the propulsive performance, ice propulsion and safety of ships navigating in shallow water has been considered. Recommendations are formulated on taking into account the effect of the draft restriction on ice performance of ships in their design. At the same time, the conclusions drawn should be considered as preliminary ones. 

Thomassen, Jørn, Løvås, Stig and Vefsnmo, Sylvi

The Adaptive Environmental Assessment and Management AEAM in INSROP - Impact Assessment Design. Lysaker: The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 45 pp. (INSROP Working Paper no. 31, 1996)

The approach of the Adaptive Environmental Assessment and Management (AEAM) concept to be used in the International Northern Sea Route (INSROP) Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is summarised. 

Hagen, Douglas and Jones, Stephen

Evaluation of the Northern Sea Route Using the Ice Regime Shipping Control System. Lysaker: The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 115 pp. (INSROP Working Paper no. 32, 1996)

This report presents the results of an analysis of ice data using The Ice Regime Shipping Control System (IRSCS) as the common denominator. It should be noted that in many cases data describing particular characteristics of the ice cover such as decay, amount of ridging, and floe size were not directly available, and had to be estimated based on general descriptions of the region. The results of this analysis do, however, indicate what ice class a vessel would need to transit the NSR under the IRSCS, and what areas would likely require icebreaker assistance.

Flanders, Nicholas

Impacts of Transportation Systems on the Communities of Western Alaska: Analysis of the Literature. Lysaker: The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 29 pp. (INSROP Working Paper no. 33, 1996) 

This report examines the recent social impact literature associated with the Alaska Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) oil leasing program of the US government and other relevant impact studies done for resource development in Western Alaska. The OCS literature provides insights into the potential effects on the communities of the Bering and Chukchi Seas of opening the Northern Sea Route (NSR) to international traffic. Of particular interest is the literature on the transport system associated with oil development.

Brovin, Alexander, Tsoy, Loly et al.

Planning and Risk Assessment: Volume 2 - 1994 project work. Lysaker: The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 101 pp. (INSROP Working Paper no. 34, 1996)

This report is devoted to specialised ice information for planning marine operations along the NSR and also to risk assessment for navigation of ships depending on ice conditions. The main stress is laid on the new studies in the indicated areas and evolvement of conceptual questions and generalisations of the methods representing a general situation in ice formation development for planning of shipping along the NSR. 

Vefsnmo, Sylvi, Løvås, S. M., Backlund, Anders and Ranki, Erkki

Content of Database: Planning and Risk Assessment: Volume 2 - 1994 project work. Lysaker: The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 60 pp. (INSROP Working Paper no. 35, 1996)

In order to assess how pollution from NSR shipping will impact the environment, a statistical model will be applied to provide drift tracks of the pollutants. Appropriate input data to the model are identified. The report also includes a study of risk assessment of ship in ice operation as well as identification of different accident scenarios. 

Gudkovich, Zalman, and Karelin, Igor

Operational Tools, Volume 2. 1994 project work. Lysaker: The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 75 pp. (INSROP Working Paper no. 36, 1996)

Improved methods for meteorological, oceanographic and ice forecasts with different advance periods that are perspective for providing scientific-operational support to shipping along the Northern Sea Route are presented. The technology for developing the suggested forecasting methods and the form for presenting initial and prognostic information are given. Effectiveness of the methods is assessed. The directions of the future development of forecasting methods in an automated system for hydrometeorlogical support to shipping are considered.

Brubaker, Douglas

The Legal Status of the Russian Baselines in the Arctic. Lysaker: The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 47 pp. (INSROP Working Paper no. 37, 1996)

In this Section the validity under international law of the straight baselines the Soviet Union established in the Arctic and which Russia maintained will be examined. The issues which will be addressed include the limits of the criteria for establishing straight baselines. These are by no means clear, not only due to vagueness in language used, but especially in the subsequent general State practice. 

Johannesen, Ola, Sandven, Svein, Kloster, Kjell, Melentyev, Vladimir and Bobylev, Leonid

Ice Monitoring by non-Russian Satellite Data - Phase 2: Pilot Demonstration. Lysaker: The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 58 pp. (INSROP Working Paper no. 38, 1996)

Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images from satellites, with a resolution of 100 m, can distinguish different ice types and map leads, polynyas, shear zones, landfast ice, drifting ice and location of the ice edge. The Russian icebreaker fleet, which assists all sea transportation in the area, uses an extensive ice monitoring and forecasting service in the navigation. The main results from the 1994 SAR demonstration are described, and a recommendation for future use of SAR data in tactical ice monitoring is outlined. 

Heideman, Torsten

Influence of Ice Compression on Feasible Navigation on the Northern Sea Route. Lysaker: The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 26 pp. (INSROP Working Paper no. 39, 1996) 

The different forms of ice compression are identified and briefly described and the present means of observing ice compression are briefly presented. 

Wiig, Øystein, Belikov, Stanislav, Boltunov, Andrei and Garner, Gerald

Selection of marine mammal Valued Ecosystem Components and description of impact hypotheses in the Northern Sea Route Area. Lysaker: The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 73 pp. (INSROP Working Paper no 40, 1996)

The main object of the marine mammal project under INSROP is to establish a database containing information on distribution, abundance, migrations and breeding and feeding areas for selected marine mammals in the Northern Sea Route (NSR) area, and to present a discussion of possible impacts of the activity on these species. 

Eldegard, Tom

European Gas Markets and Russian LNG. Prospects for the Development of European Gas Markets and Model Simulations of Possible New LNG Supplies from year 2000. Lysaker: The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 82 pp. (INSROP Working Paper no. 41, 1996)

This study aims at clarifying the framework for possible LNG exports from Northern Russia, starting by the turn of the century. Focus is on the European natural gas markets. First the study provides general background information on the market structure and related topics, and the information is then used to develop a formal market model and subject it to simulations with various assumptions of the future gas supply. 

Tsoy, Loly, Baskin, Alexander, Brestkin, Sergey et al.

Content of Database: Volume 2 - 1994 project work. Lysaker: The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 50 pp. (INSROP Working Paper no. 42, 1996)

This report give a parameter list and explanation for use of the database on technical, operational and cost characteristics and ice performance of existing icebreakers of the Russian arctic fleet. The development of the base of cartography data in the form of electronic catalogue of charts is reviewed and the report outlines the structure for development and future use of the database on ice and hydrometeorlogical conditions. 

Yamaguchi, Hajime

Behaviour of ice floe in restricted water. Lysaker: The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 38 pp. (INSROP Working Paper no. 43, 1996)

The Distributed Mass/Discrete Floe model is a numerical model proposed for the computation of mesoscale pack ice rheology with the difference of floe shape taken into consideration. This model possesses the advantages of both the continuum and the discrete element ones: it can express the discrete nature of pack ice which is difficult for a continuum model to treat, and can realise much shorter computation time than a discrete element model. Comparison to circulation water channel experiments and sea ice motion in the southern part of the Okhotsk is given.

Ramsland, Trond Ragnvald

The Northern Sea Route and the Rivers Ob-Irtysh and Yenisey. Lysaker: The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 48 pp. (INSROP Working Paper no 44, 1996)

A preliminary study of cargo volumes, infrastructure and freight rates. Study of the possibilities to export raw materials and semi-finished goods through the northern ports at competitive rates, and if so, how this will affect the Northern Sea Route. Verification of the infrastructure in the actual areas, and how this will determine the capacity and costs for transport. Costs of river transport versus deep sea transport, and fees for the Northern Sea Route versus cost of transport through the Suez canal. 

Vefsnmo, Sylvi and Løvås, Stig Magne

Variability Analysis of Natural Conditions and Influence on NSR Sailing. Lysaker: The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 84 pp. (INSROP Working Paper no. 45, 1996)

The purpose of the report is to provide an analysis of physical environment parameters affecting transit sailing. Regional analysis as well as analysis given sailing routes have been performed by use of INSROP GIS. The AARI Sea Ice Charts covering the period 1967-90 have been analysed statistically and the results are implemented into INSROP GIS. Variability analyses are carried out for parameters such as total ice concentration, ice thickness, fraction of old ice and presence of fast ice on a monthly basis. In order to evaluate the ice conditions along a planned sailing route, a methodology to analyse the distribution of different ice conditions along a specified route has been developed and implemented into INSROP GIS. Ship accident data reported in different INSROP reports have been compiled and compared to the variability analysis of the AARI Sea Ice Charts Database. The data cover the period 1954-90 and 1991-94. The comparison shows that the ship accidents are closely related to unfavourable ice conditions. 

Gold, Edgar, John A. Cantello and Peter L. Wright

Marine Insurance for the NSR: Towards a New Risk Regime? Lysaker: The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 37 pp. (INSROP Working Paper no. 46, 1996)

This Working Paper provides a further assessment of the marine insurance requirements for the NSR. The principal marine insurance areas, covering hull and machinery risks, cargo risks, and protection and indemnity (third party) risks is outlined and, where appropriate, examined in terms of the NSR. In addition, an initial assessment of the capacities of the major marine insurance markets to accept this type of risks is made. 

Løvås, Stig Magnar and Odd Willy Brude

INSROP GIS v1.0a - User's Guide and System Documentation. Lysaker: The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 98 pp. (INSROP Working Paper no 47, 1996)

The multi-disciplinary aspect of INSROP requires a flow of information between INSROP projects. A GIS (Geographic Information System) was developed as a tool for storage, retrieval and analysis of information from the two INSROP subprograms focusing on the physical and biological environment respectively. The GIS is also intended to grow into a computerised up-to-date realisation of the INSROP knowledge base. This document is primarily intended to document INSROP GIS in its present state, and provide guidance for use of INSROP GIS. 

Andresen, Dag and Anders Backlund

Marine Transportation of Oil from Timan Pechora and from inland Russian Fields. Lysaker: The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 84 pp. + 47 pp. + 32 ls. (INSROP Working Paper no. 48, 1996)

The first section of this report deals with the world-wide LPG market. A comprehensive study into the supply and demand of LPG has been done, covering both the past and the future. Being a part of the energy-sector, LPG is also influenced by the general political actions, thus a part discussing the political aspects and characteristics of the gas market has been included. Section 2 discusses the technical and economical feasibility of export of LPG from the area in the vicinity of the Ob Gulf. 

Boyakova, S.I., Ivanov, V. N., Osherenko, G., Vinokurova, L. I., Ivanov, B. V., Ivanova, T. S., Ignatiyeva, V. B., Kistenev, S. P. and Shirina, D. A.

Influence of the Northern Sea Route on Social and Cultural Development of Indigenous Peoples of the Arctic Zone of the Sakha Republic (Yakutia). Lysaker: The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 73 pp. (INSROP Working Paper no. 49, 1996)

Understanding the impact on Arctic indigenous peoples of the opening of the NSR in the 1930s is the starting point for assessing future impacts of expanded international use of the NSR. This study suggests problems to be avoided in expanded plans for use of the NSR as well as revealing long-standing problems that need to be rectified. The NSR's influence on the Arctic indigenous peoples cannot be separated from the political, economic, social and cultural changes which took place as a result of acceleration in the building of socialism and industrial development of the former USSR's northern territories. 

Wood, Tony and Martin, Robert

Seagoing Logistics Solutions to Oilfield Material Supplies. Lysaker: The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 66 pp. (INSROP Working Paper no. 50, 1996)

The aim of the paper is to evaluate the market for seaborne logistic solutions to material supplies to the oilfield developments in the Western Siberia and Timan Pechora regions of Russia. 

Schindler, Debra L.

Indigenous Peoples and Development in the Chukchi Autonomous Okrug. Lysaker: The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 78 pp. (INSROP Working Paper no. 51, 1996)

The Northern Sea Route is a vital part of the Chukotkan landscape and the level of support it receives in the future will have a tremendous impact on the lives of the Native peoples. The Chukchi Autonomous Okrug was created in 1930 to provide an ethnically-defined homeland for the Chukchi people within the socialist state, but there are also several other indigenous minorities within the Okrug. The cultural, historical, social and economical conditions are surveyed. 

Brubaker, Douglas

Jurisdiction Governing the Straits in Russian Arctic Waters. Lysaker: The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 109 pp. (INSROP Working Paper no. 52, 1996)

As seen in INSROP Working Paper 57 the Russian Arctic straits are viewed differently ranging from existing under complete Russian jurisdiction to comprising a part of the LOSC international straits regime. In this working paper the rights involved with vessel passage and coastal State control are analysed. 

Larsen, Lars-Henrik, Palerud, Rune, Goodwin, Harvey and Sirenko, Boris

The Marine Invertebrates, Fish and Coastal Zone Features of the NSR Area . Lysaker: The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 58 pp. (INSROP Working Paper, no. 53, 1996)

This paper presents the information collected in the INSROP database on Marine and Anadromous Fish and Invertebrates, The Coastal Zone, and Large River Estuaries and Deltas. A description of the invertebrate communities and fish resources is given, with special emphasis put on the processes and links between the Valued Ecosystem Components (VECs). Correlations between environmental parameters and distribution of selected animal groups are presented, to illustrate the potential for further analysis which the stored data offer.

Høifødt, Sverre, Nygaard, Vigdis, Aanesen, Margrethe and Hønneland, Geir

Selected Issues on Regional Economic Development along the Northern Sea Route. Lysaker: The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 102 pp. (INSROP Working Paper no. 54, 1996)

This paper is the second part of a joint research project dealing with future prospects for four basic industries in Northern Norway and Northwest Russia. This part concentrates on fisheries, timber, and oil and gas. 

Schelkanov, Anatoly and Kelberg, Yury

Survey of Logistics Models - Part 2: The Methodology of Simulative Modelling of Transport and Ice Breaker Fleets Operations in the Arctic. Lysaker: The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 27 pp. (INSROP Working Paper no 55, 1996)

In the project a review of most important logistic models for using in the INSROP and condition of their information supply are represented. The models for solving following tasks are shown in most detailed way: 

  • Determination of efficiency of ship employment on particular transport lines and routes. 
  • Substantiation of cargo ships requirements. 
  • Complex substantiation of transport process effectiveness of cargo transportation in the Arctic. 
Kryukov, Valery, Moe, Arild and Schmat, Vladimir

West Siberian Oil and the Northern Sea Route: Current Situation and Future Potential. Lysaker: The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 29 pp. (INSROP Working Paper no. 56, 1996)

The Paper discusses links between the NSR and the development of oil fields in the northern regions of Western Siberia and Krasnoyarsk krai (Northern Ob-Yenisei). Also published in Polar Geography, Vol. 19, No. 3, pp 219-235. 

Brubaker, Douglas

The Legal Status of Straits in Russian Arctic Waters -"Internationality. (Chapter 4)". Lysaker: The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 51 pp. (INSROP Working Paper no. 57, 1996)

The central issue in this working paper involves interpretation of "international use" required under the straits regime of both the 1958 Territorial Sea Convention (TSC) and the 1982 Law of the Sea Convention (LOSC), and from this whether the Russian Arctic straits can be considered international. 

Simonsen, Henning

Regional Co-operation in the Northeast Asia: new opportunities for the Russian Arctic? Lysaker: The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 94 pp. (INSROP Working Paper no. 58, 1996)

This working paper examines the political perceptions and relations between Russia and its neighbouring states in Northeast Asia to see in what way these perceptions and relations provide a stumbling block to regional co-operation in the region, with a special view to the Russian Arctic and the NSR. 

Ramsland, Trond Ragnvald and Hedels, Svein

The NSR Transit Study (PART IV): The economics of the NSR. A Feasibility Study of the Northern Sea Route as an alternative to the International Shipping Market. Lysaker: The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 54 pp. (INSROP Working Paper no. 59, 1996) 

This working paper analyses the profitability of an ice classified vessel trafficking the NSR versus the profitability of a regular vessel transiting through Suez. 

An investor facing the choice of either investing in a highly ice-classified vessel or a standard bluewater vessel, will need a few questions answered. The first question is which of the two cash flows will have the larger net present value. The object of this project has been to compare a pair of cash flows generated by an ice-classified and a bluewater vessel of compatible cargo-carrying capacity. The route between Hamburg and Yokohama is used as base case for the model presented in the paper. The Northern Searoute between Hamburg and Yokohama is 35 percent shorter than the Southern Searoute between these two ports. 

Bakken, Vidar, Gavrilo, Maria V, Isaksen, Kjell and Strann, Karl-Birger

Selection of marine bird Valued Ecosystem Components and descriptions of impact hypothesis in the Northern Sea Route Area. Lysaker: The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 56 pp. (INSROP Working Paper no. 60, 1996)

Marine birds is an important resource along the Northern Sea Route. Some areas are inhabited by nationally and internationally important and, in some instances, threatened species. 

In the NSR area, there are many Arctic bird species, but also species which are mainly found in the Atlantic and the Pacific Oceans. The aim of this paper is to identify vulnerable species groups among marine birds along the NSR and to identify which new threats the NSR-activity will lead to for these birds. 

Nielsen, Jens Petter

Historical and Current Uses of the Northern Sea Route. Part III: The Period 1855-1917. Lysaker: The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 90 pp. (INSROP Working Paper no 61, 1996)

This paper gives an historical overview over the development and early use of the NSR. The author also discusses central questions in the history of the NSR, for example the relative importance of different driving forces for the development of the NSR. 


Ierusalimsky, A.V., Ponomarev, S.M. and Semanova, T.M.

New Concepts of Removing Ice: Investigation of the efficiency and advisability to use non-traditional shape of hull lines for icebreakers and icebreaking cargo ships of Arctic navigation. Lysaker: The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 56 pp. (INSROP Working Paper no. 62, 1996)

The report presents analysis of the efficiency of non-traditional hull-lines of icebreakers, compared to icebreakers with a traditional forebody. The results are based on full-scale trials. Preliminary conclusions on the advantages of non-traditional hull lines were formulated. 

Semanov, G., Kirsh, J., Karev, V., Sisemov, N. and Zhuravlev, O.

Control of Pollution from Ships on the Northern Sea Route. Lysaker: The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 116 pp. (INSROP Working Paper no 63, 1996)

The purpose of this study is to identify potential sources of pollution on board the ships sailing along the NSR, causes of sea pollution and existing legislation for Arctic marine environment protection (USA, Canada and Russia). 

Semanov, G., Molchanov, M., Lotukhov, S., Stepanov, A. and Gagieva, L.

Requirements to NSR Shore Reception Facilities. Lysaker: The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 44 pp. (INSROP Working Paper no 64, 1996)

The NSR lies in the severe Arctic climatic zone, and therefore such a special feature should be accounted for in both management of ship wastes and development of requirements to shore reception facilities. A description is given of national types of oil-garbage skimmers, floating receiving facilities, shore facilities for disposal of oily garbage and oil residues. 


Somkin, V., Ilyscenko-Krylov, D. & Lastochkin, P.

NSR Shipboard Oil Pollution Emergency Plan. Lysaker: The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 48 pp. (INSROP Working Paper no 65, 1996) 

The need for developing the "Shipboard Oil Pollution Emergency Plan" has been specified by the new Regulation 26 of Annex 1 to MARPOL 73/78. The purpose of this study is to prepare this plan which takes account of peculiarities of ship operations on the NSR.

Lensu, Mikko, Heale, Stephanie, Riska, Kaj and Kujala, Pentti

Ice Environment and Ship Hull Loading along the NSR. Lysaker: The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 128 pp. (INSROP Working Paper no. 66, 1996)

The Project I.1.10 belongs to the INSROP sub-programme I, Natural Conditions and Ice Navigation, and its objective is to combine existing knowledge in ice conditions with methods of calculating transit parameters and damage probabilities of ice going ships along the NSR. 

Ørebech, Peter

The Participation Rights under the World Trade Organization General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS): The Case of International Northern Sea Route Shipping Transportation Services. Lysaker: The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 116 pp. (INSROP Working Paper no. 67, 1996)

The introduction of the Northern Sea Route as the third international waterway is an inappropriate concept unless it has a sound legal foundation. Since the goal of INSROP is to bring the third international waterway into existence, a vital task is to stress the importance of justice, the rule of law, and equal competition and participation rights. The author addresses the regulations governing participation rights. The focal point of the legal issue in question is the constraints that GATS (General Agreement on Trade in Services) places on nation states aspiring to become Members to this treaty. What protection does GATS offer? Do GATS provisions secure equal competition rights such that shipowners feel encouraged to choose the NSR instead of the Eastern or Western international seaways? 

Vasilyev, V. et al.

Content of Database. Lysaker: The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 52 pp. (INSROP Working Paper no. 68, 1996)

The first part describes the structure of the information database on technical and operational characteristics and ice performance of promising icebreakers and icebreaking cargo ships for the Arctic. In addition the report gives an update on the development of databases on ice, meteorological and hydrological conditions for the NSR. 

Zakharov, V. F., Baskin, A., Alekseyev, G. V., Buzuyev, A.Y. and Samonenko, S.

Perspective Research. Lysaker: The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 78 pp. (INSROP Working Paper no 69, 1996)

The paper consists of two parts. Part I, "Changes in Climate, Ice and Shipping Conditions along the NSR during the XXth Century", an assessment is given of possible changes of climate, ice conditions and shipping along the NSR during the forthcoming decade (up to 2005). Part II, "Accurate Positioning in the Arctic", gives a short overview of different types of navigation methods, presenting positioning systems, possible navigational dangers and specific criteria for navigation accuracy. 

Tsoy, L., Volkov, V., Karavanov, S., Moreynis, F. and Zubkova, A.

Environmental and Structural Safety of Ships. Lysaker: The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 55 pp. (INSROP Working Paper no 70, 1996)

This working paper gives an update on the current state of research within the INSROP Project on requirements to environmental and structural safety of ships. Consideration is given to the sea pollution from tankers. 

Makarov, E., Adamovich, N., Korzhikov, A., Vanda, Y., Karelin, I. and Buzuyev, A.

Operational Information on Nature Conditions. Volume 2. Lysaker: The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 47 pp. (INSROP Working Paper no 71, 1996)

The aim of this report is to determine those forms of Hydrometeorlogical Support organisational scheme in Arctica that will not require substantial changes when higher-level technology is introduced. 

Fakhry, Aref

Freezing Damage to Northern Sea Route Cargo: Liability and Insurance Considerations. Lysaker: The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 67 pp. (INSROP Working Paper no. 72, 1996)

One of the problems with shipping on the NSR is the potential frost damage to cargo subjected to very cold temperatures. Such damage raises questions of liability and insurance.

Takamasa, Tomoji, Koichi Kondo, Kunio Miyashita, Shogo Hayashi and Izuo Aya

The Potential of the NSR with a Nuclear Icebreaking Container Ship. Lysaker: The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 70 pp. (INSROP Working Paper no 73, 1996)

In this paper the economic feasibility of transporting cargo along the NSR with a nuclear icebreaking ship is compared to the existing container shipping and air transport. 
 

DEVELOPMENT AND MULTILATERAL INSTITUTIONS - WORKING PAPERS

The programme is funded by the Research Council of Norway and conducted by the Fridtjof Nansen Institute in cooperation with ECON Center for Economic Analysis. The Christian Michelsen Institute, Bergen and the Center for Development and the Environment at the University of Oslo are also affiliated with the programme.

Jönsson, Christer

An interorganization approach to the study of multilateral institutions: Lessons from previous research on international co-operation. Lysaker: The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 16 pp. (Development and Multilateral Institutions Programme; Working Paper no. 1, 1996)

This study discusses lessons from previous research on international co-operation in the fields of international aviation and AIDS. The following lessons are elaborated and illustrated in the paper: Agenda-setting, multilateral co-ordination, "know-how" and international co-operation. 

Assenza, Gaudenz B.

Financial globalisation: Toward a theoretical framework. Lysaker: The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 38 pp. (Development and Multilateral Institutions Programme; Working Paper no. 2, January 1996)

This draft paper constructs a framework for explaining the process of financial globalisation in the 1980s and 1990s. The central argument in this paper is that financial globalisation can be explained by the historical interaction of a specific set of political, economic, cultural and technological factors. 

Bergesen, Helge Ole and Botnen, Trond K.

Sustainable principles or sustainable institutions? A study of the long way from UNCED to the Commission on Sustainable Development. Lysaker: The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 24 pp. (Development and Multilateral Institutions Programme; Working Paper no. 3, 1996)

The purpose of this paper is to develop an analytical framework that makes it possible to evaluate the contents of political commitment, as expressed by UN conferences; and to explore the potential of this approach in an empirical study of the UN Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD), the institutional outcome of UNCED. 

Harboe, Henrik Chr.

Development theory and policies: Contrasting the UN System with the Multilateral Development Banks. Lysaker: The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 57 pp. (Development and Multilateral Institutions Programme; Working Paper no. 4, March 1996)

This paper traces the links between general development theories and the development policies of the Multilateral Development Institutions (MDIs: UN and the Multilateral Development Banks). The paper reviews the theoretical development debate since the 1950s as well as the evolution of the development policies adopted by the MDIs during the same period. The paper illustrates how the theoretical debate and the policies of these institutions have changed significantly over time, and that the shifts in policies have been parallel to the shifts in the theoretical debate. 

Ingeberg, Kjetil, Torleif Haugland and Kjell Roland

Price reforms in the power sector: The World Bank's role. Lysaker: The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 58 pp (Development and Multilateral Institutions Programme; Working paper no. 5, January 1996)

This report assesses the World Bank's contribution to economic reforms in the power sector. Aggregate figures for the sector suggest that the Bank's success has been limited. Using a simple counter-factual analysis, it is shown that an inefficient power sector can seriously hurt development. In some detail, the past performance of the Bank in Malaysia, Indonesia, Zimbabwe and Colombia is reviewed with respect to loan agreement covenants, recipient compliance and tariff development. 

Hansen, Jørgen Karthum, Stein Hansen, Jens Claussen and Henrik Harboe

Integrating environmental concerns into economy-wide policies in developing countries: The role of multilateral development banks. Lysaker: The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 121 pp. (Development and Multilateral Institutions Programme; Working Paper no. 6, March 1996)

This study addresses the role of the multilateral development banks and their effectiveness in bringing environmental considerations, issues and consequences into structural and sectoral adjustment programs in developing countries. It addresses a series of complex issues showing that such programs cannot be meaningfully studied in isolation from other aid co-operation and government development programs. By studying four carefully selected very different countries; the Philippines, Thailand, Ghana and Tanzania, the study provides an insight into the dynamics and diversity of such program lending and how its design can affect resources' management and the environment in benign or adverse ways. 

Jönsson, Christer

The problem of coordination among UN agencies: Experience from AIDS-related assistance programmes. Lysaker: The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 30 pp. (Development and Multilateral Institutions Programme; Working Paper no. 7, January 1996)

This study traces the complex interorganizational bargaining processes around the problem of coordinating foreign assistance from the late 1980s until 1994 when ECOSOC initiated a joint and cosponsored UN program on HIV/AIDS in the third world. These bargaining processes were in large part driven by dissatisfaction with WHO's role as lead agency. The study draws on interviews and internal, non-public as well as official material related to interorganizational bargaining. 

Malnes, Raino

Democracy in the United Nations: For and against. Lysaker: The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 23 pp. (Development and Multilateral Institutions Programme; Working Paper no. 8, January 1996)

This paper concludes in four observations: 

  • There are divergent and weighty reasons for preferring democratic procedures to other modes of decision-making in the UN. 
  • There are significant moral and pragmatic objections against the existing constitutional structure of the UN. 
  • U Thant's statement that "it is hard to imagine another system by which the voting in the United Nations could be more equitably arranged" (Childers and Urquhart 1994, 125) is problematic. 
  • It is far from clear that any prima facie cogent call for reform of the UN succeeds in establishing that reform is called for, all things considered. 
Laugen, Torunn

Balancing demands for effectiveness and legitimacy: UNICEF's follow-up of the World Summit for Children. Lysaker: The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 39 pp. (Development and Multilateral Institutions Programme; Working Paper no. 9, January 1996) 

This study focuses on two critical aspects of multilateral institutions: effectiveness and legitimacy. The two aspects are to some extent interlinked and may reinforce each other, but there are also possible conflicts between them. Inasmuch as there is a tension between these aspects, multilateral institutions are walking on a tight rope trying to balance them. This report examines how one of the UN development agencies - The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) - is trying to balance these demands. 

Botnen, Trond and Leiv Lunde

UNDP reform: Challenges and Options. Lysaker: The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 34 pp. (Development and Multilateral Institutions Programme; Working 

This project studies the role and comparative advantage of UNDP vis á vis other UN and MDB bodies. It is an empirical case study on the UNDP's current activities in China, with particular reference to the environmental sector. This study gives an outline of how UNDP has tackled the present situation, and to what extent it makes an effort at co-ordinating the activities of other UN bodies. Furthermore, its relations with the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank will be studied, including how the UNDP-supported Agenda 21 process relates to the World Bank-supported National Environmental Action Plan (NEAP). Finally, the complex relations between UNDP and the domestic institutional structure is discussed. 
 

Polar Oceans Report

Vukas, Budislav 

Protecting the Polar Marine Environment: Aspects of the 1982 UN Convention on the Law of the Sea. Lysaker: Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 20 pp. (Polar Oceans Reports; No. 1, 1996)

The analysis in this report aims at scrutinizing the environmental provisions of the 1982 UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (LOS Convention) with a view to their applicability to the polar oceans. The author focuses more closely on two Parts of the LOS Convention of major relevance for the topic: Part XI, on "Enclosed or Semi-Enclosed Seas", and Part XII, on "Protection and Preservation of the Marine Environment". He addresses, in final remarks, some of the reproaches to the LOS Convention from the point of view of its utility for the protection of the polar marine environment. 

Vidas, Davor

Protecting the Polar Marine Environment through Regional Cooperation. Lysaker: Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 31 pp. (Polar Oceans Reports; No. 2, 1996)

Cooperative efforts towards the protection of the marine environment through regional collaboration in the Arctic and the Antarctic are juxtaposed in this report. International cooperative processes in the two polar regions since the late 1980s are described, and their outcomes analyzed in the light of both differences and similarities of the Arctic and the Antarctic. Three aspects of the approaches to marine environmental protection in polar regions are examined more closely: 1) the application of anticipatory approach; 2) the adaptation of environmental protection standards to special polar circumstances; 3) the criteria used in the determination of the area of application of instruments for environmental protection in the polar regions. 

Joyner, Christopher C. 

The 1991 Madrid Environmental Protection Protocol: Contributions to Marine Pollution Law. Lysaker: Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 15 pp. (Polar Oceans Reports; No. 3, 1996)

This report describes and analyses the provisions of the 1991 Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty, and relates these to general international environmental law in the sphere of marine pollution. Following a brief overview of the sources and legal framework for marine pollution in general, the author turns on to marine pollution provisions of the 1991 Antarctic Environmental Protocol and its annexes, providing in conclusion a balance sheet of the Protocol's contribution to marine pollution law. 

Brubaker, Douglas 

The Role of State Practice in the Formation of International Law for Straits in the Russian Arctic: Jurisdiction vs. Environmental Protection. Lysaker: Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 32 pp. (Polar Oceans Reports; No. 4, 1996)

The analysis of State practice in this report takes as a goal the clarification of the provisions of the 1982 UN Convention on the Law of the Sea on international straits, and on ice-covered areas, as well as their interrelation. The Russian coastal state practice and the United States navigational and declarative practice in the Russian Arctic is then viewed in the light of these provisions. Conclusions on the legal effect of the relevant LOS Convention provisions and on the impact of state practice are drawn, and recommendations for conflict resolution are forwarded. 

Infante, Maria Teresa 

Issues of Jurisdiction in Polar Oceans: Flag and Coastal State Jurisdiction and Pollution Control in Antarctica. Lysaker: Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 23 pp. (Polar Oceans Reports; No. 5, 1996)

The current trend in the evolution of the Antarctic Treaty System (ATS) after the adoption of the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty in 1991 is characterized by the introduction of substantive and operational aspects related to the protection of the marine environment. This poses both theoretical and practical challenges in two aspects: 1) the issue of jurisdiction as envisioned by the main instruments composing the ATS, and its consequences in the field of marine environmental protection; 2) the impact of mechanisms provided for by instruments adopted independently from the ATS on the marine environmental protection in the Antarctic area. The report contains a general assessment of the main problems of implementation of the Protocol in the light of these challenges. 

Herr, Richard A. 

Living Resource Management in the Southern Ocean: The Effects of Regime Overlap. Lysaker: Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 20 pp. (Polar Oceans Reports; No. 6, 1996)

This report seeks to explore both the general theoretical issues and the specific consequences of overlapping regimes on the management of the Southern Ocean living resources. Accordingly, in the first part of the report, the author deals with the questions of definition, nature, origins and consequences of regime overlap. This provides the framework for the second part of the report, which focuses on regime overlap in the Southern Ocean. The analysis comprises various aspects of relation between the provisions of the Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Seals, the Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources, the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty, and the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea, as well as the decision of the International Whaling Commission, of May 1994, to establish a whale sanctuary applicable in the Southern Ocean. 
 

Publications aimed at the general public (newspaper articles, newsletters etc.)

Bergesen, Helge Ole Slutten på en grønn drøm? (The end of a green dream?) Bergens Tidende 30. august 1996 

Bergesen, Helge Ole Miljøpolitikken: Fra pioner til sinke. (Environmental policy: From pioneer to laggard) S. 18-20 i: Tidens Tegn. - Vol. 4, no 12 (1996) 

Buen, Jørund I skyggen av EU-kampen (In the shadow of the EU struggle). Morgenbladet 13. september 1996 

Dahl, Agnethe og Liv Astrid Sverdrup Norge - et nikkedokkeland (Norway - a puppet country) Dagbladet 16. september 1996 

Eikeland, Per Ove Strukturendringer i markedet - konkurransereformen inn i en ny fase? (Changes in market structure - competition enters a new phase?) Kraftjournalen. - Vol. 1, no. 1 (1996). - S. 50-51. 

Hønneland, Geir B. Forventinger og misnøye blant russere (Expectations and discontent among Russians). Nordlys 12. september 1996 

Martinsen, Kåre Dahl Miljø-millioner uten effekt? (Millions invested in the environment - without effect?) Dagbladet 28. november 1996 

Stokke, Olav Schram Different views : Environmental protection under the Arctic Council. - WWF Arctic Bulletin, 1996, no. 4 

Stokke, Olav Schram Who is who: The Fridtjof Nansen Institute. - WWF Arctic Bulletin, 1996, no. 3 

Sverdrup, Liv Astrid Berntsens nasjonale ansvar : Hvor tålmodig har en miljøvernminister lov til å være? (Mr Berntsens national responsibility: How much patience is a Minister of the environment allowed?) Arbeiderbladet 25. september 1996. 

Tangen, Kristian og Jørund Buen Skyttergravskrig om gasskraft (The trench war over gas-generated power). Morgenbladet 9. august 1996 

Wettestad, Jørgen Ikke bare Norges fortjeneste : Sur nedbør: Er problemet løst - og hvordan? (Not only Norway's merit: Acid rain - is the problem solved? and how?) Arbeiderbladet 21. november 1996 

Østreng, Willy International scientific evaluations : When, what and why : The INSROP sceme and experience. - The INSROP Newsletter, 1996, nr. 2 

NEWSLETTERS

  • Nansen News : Newsletter from the Fridtjof Nansen Institute - 2 issues in 1996 
  • Norsk Kinaforum : Nyhetsbrev - 2 issues in 1996 
  • The INSROP Newsletter - 2 issues in 1996 

Ordering information

Pricing

The price list below must be taken as a rule of thumb. Many FNI publications will be priced on an individual basis. When ordering several copies of a publication, the first three - 3 - will carry full price, the rest half price. Students as well as educational and research institutions will enjoy a 50% rebate. Postage and handling expenses - NOK 50.00 - will be added.  

Notes
 
Articles and reprints, 25 pages or less
NOK 50.00
Articles and reprints, 26 pages or more
NOK 100.00
Research reports
 
Reports, 25 pages or less
NOK 100.00
Reports, 26 - 50 pages
NOK 200.00
Reports, 51- 150 pages
NOK 400.00
Reports, 151- 300 pages
NOK 600.00
Reports, more than 300 pages
NOK 800.00
All EED Reports
NOK 120.00
Send order to: The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, P.O. Box 326, N-1324 Lysaker, Norway, or submit order via fax (47-67111910), phone (47-67111900) or email (post@fni.no). 

An invoice will be included with the ordered publications.