This 1996 list of publications from the Fridtjof Nansen Institute is presented in the following categories:
including price list and order form, can be found on the last page.
Anderson, David G.
Bergesen, Helge Ole and Botnen, Trond
Herr, Richard A. and Bruce W. Davis
Hønneland, Geir B.
Kryukov, V., Shmat, V. and Moe,
Laugen, Torunn and Leiv Lunde
The article provides
Indigenous Political and Property Rights and Economic/Environmental Reform in Northwest Siberia. Pp. 225-237 in: Post-Soviet Geography. Vol 36, No 4 (1995)
Change affecting land tenure relationships and traditional economies of northern peoples as a result of oil/gas development is outlined. Emphasis on Yamal Peninsula. Several models for transfer of land rights from state farm ownership presented.
The 20th Anniversary of the Mediterranean Action Plan: Reason to Celebrate? Pp. 57-53 in: Green Globe Yearbook 1996 / ed. by Helge Ole Bergesen et al. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 368 pp. ISBN 0-19-823345-0
This article seeks to evaluate the achievements of the legal component included in the Mediterranean Action Plan. Important criteria applied are international institutional responses to pollution problems in the Mediterranean Sea as well as domestic implementation of the joint commitments adopted. A major problem of the Action Plan seems to be a too large scope at the expense of stringency of measures, compared to resources actually available. Thus, the article concludes that there is a need to make clear and realistic priorities for the future at the expense of other sensible, but less crucial, activities within the Mediterranean Action Plan.
Stokke, Olav Schram
Stokke, Olav Schram
Stokke, Olav Schram
Stokke, Olav Schram and Davor Vidas
Stokke, Olav Schram and Davor Vidas
Sverdrup, Liv Astrid
Sydnes, Anne Kristin
Cold by Nature: Some Aspects of International Protection of the Marine Environment in Polar Regions. Pp. 129-161 in: Study of Comparative and International Law. Vol. 24, no. 26 (1996). Special issue "Essays on the New Law of the Sea - 3"/edited by Budislav Vukas.
International co-operative efforts in respect of both the Arctic and the Antarctic regions have in recent years come to share one significant similarity, namely a strong emphasis being placed by the states involved on the international protection of their environment in general, and the marine environment in particular. However, a look at the current state of international measures for environmental protection of the two polar oceans might well suggest a somewhat paradoxical situation. In respect of the marine environment of one polar region - the Arctic - which appears more endangered in environmental terms, policy-makers do not see the need for any new international legal regulation, which would add a regional level to its protection. Those dealing with the Antarctic, where sources of pollution apparently exert far less threat to the environment, found it on the contrary necessary to adopt new legally binding rules, in order to cope with the regional situation - regionally. Is the need for a regional marine environmental protection in the Arctic underestimated, or is such need in respect of the Antarctic marine environment overestimated? Or, perhaps, the issue is neither solely, nor even primarily, a matter of environmental needs, be they regional or not? The attempt made in this article aims at addressing some of the aspects of that dilemma by a comparative description and analysis of the approaches employed in the protection of the marine environment through international regional co-operation in respect of the two polar oceans.
Voisey, Heather, Christiane Beuermann, Liv
Astrid Sverdrup and Tim O'Riordan
Dahl, Agnethe and Liv Astrid
Markussen, Jan Magne
Martinsen, Kåre Dahl
Bergesen, Helge Ole and Georg Parmann
Kryukov, Valery and Arild Moe
Stokke, Olav Schram and Davor Vidas
Kryukov, Valery and Arild Moe
Dahl, Agnethe and Liv Astrid
Martinsen, Kåre Dahl and Castberg,
Dahl, Agnethe and Liv Astrid
The study focuses on who, what and how to lobby
the European Parliament in order to influence the EU decision-making process in
the most efficient manner.
Eikeland, Per Ove
Andresen, Steinar and Wettestad,
Andresen, Steinar and Wettestad,
Dahl, Agnethe og Liv Astrid Sverdrup
The formation of belief about risk: the case of the "Greenhouse Theory". Lysaker: The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 82 pp. (EED 1/96)
This study will address itself to two tasks. First, it is an attempt to bring out the rationality of the process through which an alarmist belief about the risk of climate change has gained a foothold in public opinion. This is done by confronting the rationalist perspective on beliefs with competing analytical positions. Second, the study aims at deepening our general understanding of how rational beliefs about risk take shape.
This report covers the history of the Northern Sea Route (NSR) from the 16th century until the 1990s; its exploration and use through the ages, the contribution of different nations to its exploration and exploitation, political consolidation of the area under the old Russian regime and the use of the NSR by Soviets to motivate their claim to sovereignty over adjacent territories and islands in the Arctic Ocean.
Zacharov, Victor and Baskin, Alexander
Perspective Research. Lysaker: The Fridtjof
Nansen Institute, 1996. 58 pp. (INSROP Working Paper no. 29, 1996)
The results of experimental investigations of the influence of the small draft of large ice ships on the hull form and icebreaking capability are summarised and analysed. Evaluation is given of the dependence of the power efficiently processed by propellers upon the ship's draft. The effect of the small under-keel clearance on the propulsive performance, ice propulsion and safety of ships navigating in shallow water has been considered. Recommendations are formulated on taking into account the effect of the draft restriction on ice performance of ships in their design. At the same time, the conclusions drawn should be considered as preliminary ones.
Thomassen, Jørn, Løvås, Stig and Vefsnmo, Sylvi
The Adaptive Environmental Assessment and Management AEAM in INSROP - Impact Assessment Design. Lysaker: The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 45 pp. (INSROP Working Paper no. 31, 1996)
The approach of the Adaptive Environmental Assessment and Management (AEAM) concept to be used in the International Northern Sea Route (INSROP) Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is summarised.
Hagen, Douglas and Jones, Stephen
Evaluation of the Northern Sea Route Using the Ice Regime Shipping Control System. Lysaker: The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 115 pp. (INSROP Working Paper no. 32, 1996)
This report presents the results of an analysis of ice data using The Ice Regime Shipping Control System (IRSCS) as the common denominator. It should be noted that in many cases data describing particular characteristics of the ice cover such as decay, amount of ridging, and floe size were not directly available, and had to be estimated based on general descriptions of the region. The results of this analysis do, however, indicate what ice class a vessel would need to transit the NSR under the IRSCS, and what areas would likely require icebreaker assistance.
Impacts of Transportation Systems on the Communities of Western Alaska: Analysis of the Literature. Lysaker: The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 29 pp. (INSROP Working Paper no. 33, 1996)
This report examines the recent social impact literature associated with the Alaska Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) oil leasing program of the US government and other relevant impact studies done for resource development in Western Alaska. The OCS literature provides insights into the potential effects on the communities of the Bering and Chukchi Seas of opening the Northern Sea Route (NSR) to international traffic. Of particular interest is the literature on the transport system associated with oil development.
Brovin, Alexander, Tsoy, Loly et al.
Planning and Risk Assessment: Volume 2 - 1994 project work. Lysaker: The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 101 pp. (INSROP Working Paper no. 34, 1996)
This report is devoted to specialised ice information for planning marine operations along the NSR and also to risk assessment for navigation of ships depending on ice conditions. The main stress is laid on the new studies in the indicated areas and evolvement of conceptual questions and generalisations of the methods representing a general situation in ice formation development for planning of shipping along the NSR.
Vefsnmo, Sylvi, Løvås, S. M., Backlund, Anders and Ranki, Erkki
Content of Database: Planning and Risk Assessment: Volume 2 - 1994 project work. Lysaker: The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 60 pp. (INSROP Working Paper no. 35, 1996)
In order to assess how pollution from NSR shipping will impact the environment, a statistical model will be applied to provide drift tracks of the pollutants. Appropriate input data to the model are identified. The report also includes a study of risk assessment of ship in ice operation as well as identification of different accident scenarios.
Gudkovich, Zalman, and Karelin, Igor
Operational Tools, Volume 2. 1994 project work. Lysaker: The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 75 pp. (INSROP Working Paper no. 36, 1996)
Improved methods for meteorological, oceanographic and ice forecasts with different advance periods that are perspective for providing scientific-operational support to shipping along the Northern Sea Route are presented. The technology for developing the suggested forecasting methods and the form for presenting initial and prognostic information are given. Effectiveness of the methods is assessed. The directions of the future development of forecasting methods in an automated system for hydrometeorlogical support to shipping are considered.
The Legal Status of the Russian Baselines in the Arctic. Lysaker: The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 47 pp. (INSROP Working Paper no. 37, 1996)
In this Section the validity under international law of the straight baselines the Soviet Union established in the Arctic and which Russia maintained will be examined. The issues which will be addressed include the limits of the criteria for establishing straight baselines. These are by no means clear, not only due to vagueness in language used, but especially in the subsequent general State practice.
Johannesen, Ola, Sandven, Svein, Kloster, Kjell, Melentyev, Vladimir and Bobylev, Leonid
Ice Monitoring by non-Russian Satellite Data - Phase 2: Pilot Demonstration. Lysaker: The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 58 pp. (INSROP Working Paper no. 38, 1996)
Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images from satellites, with a resolution of 100 m, can distinguish different ice types and map leads, polynyas, shear zones, landfast ice, drifting ice and location of the ice edge. The Russian icebreaker fleet, which assists all sea transportation in the area, uses an extensive ice monitoring and forecasting service in the navigation. The main results from the 1994 SAR demonstration are described, and a recommendation for future use of SAR data in tactical ice monitoring is outlined.
Influence of Ice Compression on Feasible Navigation on the Northern Sea Route. Lysaker: The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 26 pp. (INSROP Working Paper no. 39, 1996)
The different forms of ice compression are identified and briefly described and the present means of observing ice compression are briefly presented.
Wiig, Øystein, Belikov, Stanislav, Boltunov, Andrei and Garner, Gerald
Selection of marine mammal Valued Ecosystem Components and description of impact hypotheses in the Northern Sea Route Area. Lysaker: The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 73 pp. (INSROP Working Paper no 40, 1996)
The main object of the marine mammal project under INSROP is to establish a database containing information on distribution, abundance, migrations and breeding and feeding areas for selected marine mammals in the Northern Sea Route (NSR) area, and to present a discussion of possible impacts of the activity on these species.
European Gas Markets and Russian LNG. Prospects for the Development of European Gas Markets and Model Simulations of Possible New LNG Supplies from year 2000. Lysaker: The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 82 pp. (INSROP Working Paper no. 41, 1996)
This study aims at clarifying the framework for possible LNG exports from Northern Russia, starting by the turn of the century. Focus is on the European natural gas markets. First the study provides general background information on the market structure and related topics, and the information is then used to develop a formal market model and subject it to simulations with various assumptions of the future gas supply.
Tsoy, Loly, Baskin, Alexander, Brestkin, Sergey et al.
Content of Database: Volume 2 - 1994 project work. Lysaker: The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 50 pp. (INSROP Working Paper no. 42, 1996)
This report give a parameter list and explanation for use of the database on technical, operational and cost characteristics and ice performance of existing icebreakers of the Russian arctic fleet. The development of the base of cartography data in the form of electronic catalogue of charts is reviewed and the report outlines the structure for development and future use of the database on ice and hydrometeorlogical conditions.
Behaviour of ice floe in restricted water. Lysaker: The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 38 pp. (INSROP Working Paper no. 43, 1996)
The Distributed Mass/Discrete Floe model is a numerical model proposed for the computation of mesoscale pack ice rheology with the difference of floe shape taken into consideration. This model possesses the advantages of both the continuum and the discrete element ones: it can express the discrete nature of pack ice which is difficult for a continuum model to treat, and can realise much shorter computation time than a discrete element model. Comparison to circulation water channel experiments and sea ice motion in the southern part of the Okhotsk is given.
Ramsland, Trond Ragnvald
The Northern Sea Route and the Rivers Ob-Irtysh and Yenisey. Lysaker: The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 48 pp. (INSROP Working Paper no 44, 1996)
A preliminary study of cargo volumes, infrastructure and freight rates. Study of the possibilities to export raw materials and semi-finished goods through the northern ports at competitive rates, and if so, how this will affect the Northern Sea Route. Verification of the infrastructure in the actual areas, and how this will determine the capacity and costs for transport. Costs of river transport versus deep sea transport, and fees for the Northern Sea Route versus cost of transport through the Suez canal.
Vefsnmo, Sylvi and Løvås, Stig Magne
Variability Analysis of Natural Conditions and Influence on NSR Sailing. Lysaker: The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 84 pp. (INSROP Working Paper no. 45, 1996)
The purpose of the report is to provide an analysis of physical environment parameters affecting transit sailing. Regional analysis as well as analysis given sailing routes have been performed by use of INSROP GIS. The AARI Sea Ice Charts covering the period 1967-90 have been analysed statistically and the results are implemented into INSROP GIS. Variability analyses are carried out for parameters such as total ice concentration, ice thickness, fraction of old ice and presence of fast ice on a monthly basis. In order to evaluate the ice conditions along a planned sailing route, a methodology to analyse the distribution of different ice conditions along a specified route has been developed and implemented into INSROP GIS. Ship accident data reported in different INSROP reports have been compiled and compared to the variability analysis of the AARI Sea Ice Charts Database. The data cover the period 1954-90 and 1991-94. The comparison shows that the ship accidents are closely related to unfavourable ice conditions.
Gold, Edgar, John A. Cantello and Peter L. Wright
Marine Insurance for the NSR: Towards a New Risk Regime? Lysaker: The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 37 pp. (INSROP Working Paper no. 46, 1996)
This Working Paper provides a further assessment of the marine insurance requirements for the NSR. The principal marine insurance areas, covering hull and machinery risks, cargo risks, and protection and indemnity (third party) risks is outlined and, where appropriate, examined in terms of the NSR. In addition, an initial assessment of the capacities of the major marine insurance markets to accept this type of risks is made.
Løvås, Stig Magnar and Odd Willy Brude
INSROP GIS v1.0a - User's Guide and System Documentation. Lysaker: The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 98 pp. (INSROP Working Paper no 47, 1996)
The multi-disciplinary aspect of INSROP requires a flow of information between INSROP projects. A GIS (Geographic Information System) was developed as a tool for storage, retrieval and analysis of information from the two INSROP subprograms focusing on the physical and biological environment respectively. The GIS is also intended to grow into a computerised up-to-date realisation of the INSROP knowledge base. This document is primarily intended to document INSROP GIS in its present state, and provide guidance for use of INSROP GIS.
Andresen, Dag and Anders Backlund
Marine Transportation of Oil from Timan Pechora and from inland Russian Fields. Lysaker: The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 84 pp. + 47 pp. + 32 ls. (INSROP Working Paper no. 48, 1996)
The first section of this report deals with the world-wide LPG market. A comprehensive study into the supply and demand of LPG has been done, covering both the past and the future. Being a part of the energy-sector, LPG is also influenced by the general political actions, thus a part discussing the political aspects and characteristics of the gas market has been included. Section 2 discusses the technical and economical feasibility of export of LPG from the area in the vicinity of the Ob Gulf.
Boyakova, S.I., Ivanov, V. N., Osherenko, G., Vinokurova, L. I., Ivanov, B. V., Ivanova, T. S., Ignatiyeva, V. B., Kistenev, S. P. and Shirina, D. A.
Influence of the Northern Sea Route on Social and Cultural Development of Indigenous Peoples of the Arctic Zone of the Sakha Republic (Yakutia). Lysaker: The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 73 pp. (INSROP Working Paper no. 49, 1996)
Understanding the impact on Arctic indigenous peoples of the opening of the NSR in the 1930s is the starting point for assessing future impacts of expanded international use of the NSR. This study suggests problems to be avoided in expanded plans for use of the NSR as well as revealing long-standing problems that need to be rectified. The NSR's influence on the Arctic indigenous peoples cannot be separated from the political, economic, social and cultural changes which took place as a result of acceleration in the building of socialism and industrial development of the former USSR's northern territories.
Wood, Tony and Martin, Robert
Seagoing Logistics Solutions to Oilfield Material Supplies. Lysaker: The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 66 pp. (INSROP Working Paper no. 50, 1996)
The aim of the paper is to evaluate the market for seaborne logistic solutions to material supplies to the oilfield developments in the Western Siberia and Timan Pechora regions of Russia.
Schindler, Debra L.
Indigenous Peoples and Development in the Chukchi Autonomous Okrug. Lysaker: The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 78 pp. (INSROP Working Paper no. 51, 1996)
The Northern Sea Route is a vital part of the Chukotkan landscape and the level of support it receives in the future will have a tremendous impact on the lives of the Native peoples. The Chukchi Autonomous Okrug was created in 1930 to provide an ethnically-defined homeland for the Chukchi people within the socialist state, but there are also several other indigenous minorities within the Okrug. The cultural, historical, social and economical conditions are surveyed.
Jurisdiction Governing the Straits in Russian Arctic Waters. Lysaker: The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 109 pp. (INSROP Working Paper no. 52, 1996)
As seen in INSROP Working Paper 57 the Russian Arctic straits are viewed differently ranging from existing under complete Russian jurisdiction to comprising a part of the LOSC international straits regime. In this working paper the rights involved with vessel passage and coastal State control are analysed.
Larsen, Lars-Henrik, Palerud, Rune, Goodwin, Harvey and Sirenko, Boris
The Marine Invertebrates, Fish and Coastal Zone Features of the NSR Area . Lysaker: The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 58 pp. (INSROP Working Paper, no. 53, 1996)
This paper presents the information collected in the INSROP database on Marine and Anadromous Fish and Invertebrates, The Coastal Zone, and Large River Estuaries and Deltas. A description of the invertebrate communities and fish resources is given, with special emphasis put on the processes and links between the Valued Ecosystem Components (VECs). Correlations between environmental parameters and distribution of selected animal groups are presented, to illustrate the potential for further analysis which the stored data offer.
Høifødt, Sverre, Nygaard, Vigdis, Aanesen, Margrethe and Hønneland, Geir
Selected Issues on Regional Economic Development along the Northern Sea Route. Lysaker: The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 102 pp. (INSROP Working Paper no. 54, 1996)
This paper is the second part of a joint research project dealing with future prospects for four basic industries in Northern Norway and Northwest Russia. This part concentrates on fisheries, timber, and oil and gas.
Schelkanov, Anatoly and Kelberg, Yury
Survey of Logistics Models - Part 2: The Methodology of Simulative Modelling of Transport and Ice Breaker Fleets Operations in the Arctic. Lysaker: The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 27 pp. (INSROP Working Paper no 55, 1996)
In the project a review of most important logistic models for using in the INSROP and condition of their information supply are represented. The models for solving following tasks are shown in most detailed way:
West Siberian Oil and the Northern Sea Route: Current Situation and Future Potential. Lysaker: The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 29 pp. (INSROP Working Paper no. 56, 1996)
The Paper discusses links between the NSR and the development of oil fields in the northern regions of Western Siberia and Krasnoyarsk krai (Northern Ob-Yenisei). Also published in Polar Geography, Vol. 19, No. 3, pp 219-235.
The Legal Status of Straits in Russian Arctic Waters -"Internationality. (Chapter 4)". Lysaker: The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 51 pp. (INSROP Working Paper no. 57, 1996)
The central issue in this working paper involves interpretation of "international use" required under the straits regime of both the 1958 Territorial Sea Convention (TSC) and the 1982 Law of the Sea Convention (LOSC), and from this whether the Russian Arctic straits can be considered international.
Regional Co-operation in the Northeast Asia: new opportunities for the Russian Arctic? Lysaker: The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 94 pp. (INSROP Working Paper no. 58, 1996)
This working paper examines the political perceptions and relations between Russia and its neighbouring states in Northeast Asia to see in what way these perceptions and relations provide a stumbling block to regional co-operation in the region, with a special view to the Russian Arctic and the NSR.
Ramsland, Trond Ragnvald and Hedels, Svein
The NSR Transit Study (PART IV): The economics of the NSR. A Feasibility Study of the Northern Sea Route as an alternative to the International Shipping Market. Lysaker: The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 54 pp. (INSROP Working Paper no. 59, 1996)
This working paper analyses the profitability of an ice classified vessel trafficking the NSR versus the profitability of a regular vessel transiting through Suez.
An investor facing the choice of either investing in a highly ice-classified vessel or a standard bluewater vessel, will need a few questions answered. The first question is which of the two cash flows will have the larger net present value. The object of this project has been to compare a pair of cash flows generated by an ice-classified and a bluewater vessel of compatible cargo-carrying capacity. The route between Hamburg and Yokohama is used as base case for the model presented in the paper. The Northern Searoute between Hamburg and Yokohama is 35 percent shorter than the Southern Searoute between these two ports.
Bakken, Vidar, Gavrilo, Maria V, Isaksen, Kjell and Strann, Karl-Birger
Selection of marine bird Valued Ecosystem Components and descriptions of impact hypothesis in the Northern Sea Route Area. Lysaker: The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 56 pp. (INSROP Working Paper no. 60, 1996)
Marine birds is an important resource along the Northern Sea Route. Some areas are inhabited by nationally and internationally important and, in some instances, threatened species.
In the NSR area, there are many Arctic bird species, but also species which are mainly found in the Atlantic and the Pacific Oceans. The aim of this paper is to identify vulnerable species groups among marine birds along the NSR and to identify which new threats the NSR-activity will lead to for these birds.
Nielsen, Jens Petter
Historical and Current Uses of the Northern Sea Route. Part III: The Period 1855-1917. Lysaker: The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 90 pp. (INSROP Working Paper no 61, 1996)
This paper gives an historical overview over the
development and early use of the NSR. The author also discusses central
questions in the history of the NSR, for example the relative importance of
different driving forces for the development of the NSR.
Ierusalimsky, A.V., Ponomarev, S.M. and Semanova, T.M.
New Concepts of Removing Ice: Investigation of the efficiency and advisability to use non-traditional shape of hull lines for icebreakers and icebreaking cargo ships of Arctic navigation. Lysaker: The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 56 pp. (INSROP Working Paper no. 62, 1996)
The report presents analysis of the efficiency of non-traditional hull-lines of icebreakers, compared to icebreakers with a traditional forebody. The results are based on full-scale trials. Preliminary conclusions on the advantages of non-traditional hull lines were formulated.
Semanov, G., Kirsh, J., Karev, V., Sisemov, N. and Zhuravlev, O.
Control of Pollution from Ships on the Northern Sea Route. Lysaker: The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 116 pp. (INSROP Working Paper no 63, 1996)
The purpose of this study is to identify potential sources of pollution on board the ships sailing along the NSR, causes of sea pollution and existing legislation for Arctic marine environment protection (USA, Canada and Russia).
Semanov, G., Molchanov, M., Lotukhov, S., Stepanov, A. and Gagieva, L.
Requirements to NSR Shore Reception Facilities. Lysaker: The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 44 pp. (INSROP Working Paper no 64, 1996)
The NSR lies in the severe Arctic climatic zone,
and therefore such a special feature should be accounted for in both management
of ship wastes and development of requirements to shore reception facilities. A
description is given of national types of oil-garbage skimmers, floating
receiving facilities, shore facilities for disposal of oily garbage and oil
Somkin, V., Ilyscenko-Krylov, D. & Lastochkin, P.
NSR Shipboard Oil Pollution Emergency Plan. Lysaker: The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 48 pp. (INSROP Working Paper no 65, 1996)
The need for developing the "Shipboard Oil Pollution Emergency Plan" has been specified by the new Regulation 26 of Annex 1 to MARPOL 73/78. The purpose of this study is to prepare this plan which takes account of peculiarities of ship operations on the NSR.
Lensu, Mikko, Heale, Stephanie, Riska, Kaj and Kujala, Pentti
Ice Environment and Ship Hull Loading along the NSR. Lysaker: The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 128 pp. (INSROP Working Paper no. 66, 1996)
The Project I.1.10 belongs to the INSROP sub-programme I, Natural Conditions and Ice Navigation, and its objective is to combine existing knowledge in ice conditions with methods of calculating transit parameters and damage probabilities of ice going ships along the NSR.
The Participation Rights under the World Trade Organization General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS): The Case of International Northern Sea Route Shipping Transportation Services. Lysaker: The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 116 pp. (INSROP Working Paper no. 67, 1996)
The introduction of the Northern Sea Route as the third international waterway is an inappropriate concept unless it has a sound legal foundation. Since the goal of INSROP is to bring the third international waterway into existence, a vital task is to stress the importance of justice, the rule of law, and equal competition and participation rights. The author addresses the regulations governing participation rights. The focal point of the legal issue in question is the constraints that GATS (General Agreement on Trade in Services) places on nation states aspiring to become Members to this treaty. What protection does GATS offer? Do GATS provisions secure equal competition rights such that shipowners feel encouraged to choose the NSR instead of the Eastern or Western international seaways?
Vasilyev, V. et al.
Content of Database. Lysaker: The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 52 pp. (INSROP Working Paper no. 68, 1996)
The first part describes the structure of the information database on technical and operational characteristics and ice performance of promising icebreakers and icebreaking cargo ships for the Arctic. In addition the report gives an update on the development of databases on ice, meteorological and hydrological conditions for the NSR.
Zakharov, V. F., Baskin, A., Alekseyev, G. V., Buzuyev, A.Y. and Samonenko, S.
Perspective Research. Lysaker: The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 78 pp. (INSROP Working Paper no 69, 1996)
The paper consists of two parts. Part I, "Changes in Climate, Ice and Shipping Conditions along the NSR during the XXth Century", an assessment is given of possible changes of climate, ice conditions and shipping along the NSR during the forthcoming decade (up to 2005). Part II, "Accurate Positioning in the Arctic", gives a short overview of different types of navigation methods, presenting positioning systems, possible navigational dangers and specific criteria for navigation accuracy.
Tsoy, L., Volkov, V., Karavanov, S., Moreynis, F. and Zubkova, A.
Environmental and Structural Safety of Ships. Lysaker: The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 55 pp. (INSROP Working Paper no 70, 1996)
This working paper gives an update on the current state of research within the INSROP Project on requirements to environmental and structural safety of ships. Consideration is given to the sea pollution from tankers.
Makarov, E., Adamovich, N., Korzhikov, A., Vanda, Y., Karelin, I. and Buzuyev, A.
Operational Information on Nature Conditions. Volume 2. Lysaker: The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 47 pp. (INSROP Working Paper no 71, 1996)
The aim of this report is to determine those forms of Hydrometeorlogical Support organisational scheme in Arctica that will not require substantial changes when higher-level technology is introduced.
Freezing Damage to Northern Sea Route Cargo: Liability and Insurance Considerations. Lysaker: The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 67 pp. (INSROP Working Paper no. 72, 1996)
One of the problems with shipping on the NSR is the potential frost damage to cargo subjected to very cold temperatures. Such damage raises questions of liability and insurance.
Takamasa, Tomoji, Koichi Kondo, Kunio Miyashita, Shogo Hayashi and Izuo Aya
The Potential of the NSR with a Nuclear Icebreaking Container Ship. Lysaker: The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 70 pp. (INSROP Working Paper no 73, 1996)
In this paper the economic feasibility of
transporting cargo along the NSR with a nuclear icebreaking ship is compared to
the existing container shipping and air transport.
The programme is funded by the Research Council of Norway and conducted by the Fridtjof Nansen Institute in cooperation with ECON Center for Economic Analysis. The Christian Michelsen Institute, Bergen and the Center for Development and the Environment at the University of Oslo are also affiliated with the programme.
An interorganization approach to the study of multilateral institutions: Lessons from previous research on international co-operation. Lysaker: The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 16 pp. (Development and Multilateral Institutions Programme; Working Paper no. 1, 1996)
This study discusses lessons from previous research on international co-operation in the fields of international aviation and AIDS. The following lessons are elaborated and illustrated in the paper: Agenda-setting, multilateral co-ordination, "know-how" and international co-operation.
Assenza, Gaudenz B.
Financial globalisation: Toward a theoretical framework. Lysaker: The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 38 pp. (Development and Multilateral Institutions Programme; Working Paper no. 2, January 1996)
This draft paper constructs a framework for explaining the process of financial globalisation in the 1980s and 1990s. The central argument in this paper is that financial globalisation can be explained by the historical interaction of a specific set of political, economic, cultural and technological factors.
Bergesen, Helge Ole and Botnen, Trond K.
Sustainable principles or sustainable institutions? A study of the long way from UNCED to the Commission on Sustainable Development. Lysaker: The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 24 pp. (Development and Multilateral Institutions Programme; Working Paper no. 3, 1996)
The purpose of this paper is to develop an analytical framework that makes it possible to evaluate the contents of political commitment, as expressed by UN conferences; and to explore the potential of this approach in an empirical study of the UN Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD), the institutional outcome of UNCED.
Harboe, Henrik Chr.
Development theory and policies: Contrasting the UN System with the Multilateral Development Banks. Lysaker: The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 57 pp. (Development and Multilateral Institutions Programme; Working Paper no. 4, March 1996)
This paper traces the links between general development theories and the development policies of the Multilateral Development Institutions (MDIs: UN and the Multilateral Development Banks). The paper reviews the theoretical development debate since the 1950s as well as the evolution of the development policies adopted by the MDIs during the same period. The paper illustrates how the theoretical debate and the policies of these institutions have changed significantly over time, and that the shifts in policies have been parallel to the shifts in the theoretical debate.
Ingeberg, Kjetil, Torleif Haugland and Kjell Roland
Price reforms in the power sector: The World Bank's role. Lysaker: The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 58 pp (Development and Multilateral Institutions Programme; Working paper no. 5, January 1996)
This report assesses the World Bank's contribution to economic reforms in the power sector. Aggregate figures for the sector suggest that the Bank's success has been limited. Using a simple counter-factual analysis, it is shown that an inefficient power sector can seriously hurt development. In some detail, the past performance of the Bank in Malaysia, Indonesia, Zimbabwe and Colombia is reviewed with respect to loan agreement covenants, recipient compliance and tariff development.
Hansen, Jørgen Karthum, Stein Hansen, Jens Claussen and Henrik Harboe
Integrating environmental concerns into economy-wide policies in developing countries: The role of multilateral development banks. Lysaker: The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 121 pp. (Development and Multilateral Institutions Programme; Working Paper no. 6, March 1996)
This study addresses the role of the multilateral development banks and their effectiveness in bringing environmental considerations, issues and consequences into structural and sectoral adjustment programs in developing countries. It addresses a series of complex issues showing that such programs cannot be meaningfully studied in isolation from other aid co-operation and government development programs. By studying four carefully selected very different countries; the Philippines, Thailand, Ghana and Tanzania, the study provides an insight into the dynamics and diversity of such program lending and how its design can affect resources' management and the environment in benign or adverse ways.
The problem of coordination among UN agencies: Experience from AIDS-related assistance programmes. Lysaker: The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 30 pp. (Development and Multilateral Institutions Programme; Working Paper no. 7, January 1996)
This study traces the complex interorganizational bargaining processes around the problem of coordinating foreign assistance from the late 1980s until 1994 when ECOSOC initiated a joint and cosponsored UN program on HIV/AIDS in the third world. These bargaining processes were in large part driven by dissatisfaction with WHO's role as lead agency. The study draws on interviews and internal, non-public as well as official material related to interorganizational bargaining.
Democracy in the United Nations: For and against. Lysaker: The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 23 pp. (Development and Multilateral Institutions Programme; Working Paper no. 8, January 1996)
This paper concludes in four observations:
Balancing demands for effectiveness and legitimacy: UNICEF's follow-up of the World Summit for Children. Lysaker: The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 39 pp. (Development and Multilateral Institutions Programme; Working Paper no. 9, January 1996)
This study focuses on two critical aspects of multilateral institutions: effectiveness and legitimacy. The two aspects are to some extent interlinked and may reinforce each other, but there are also possible conflicts between them. Inasmuch as there is a tension between these aspects, multilateral institutions are walking on a tight rope trying to balance them. This report examines how one of the UN development agencies - The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) - is trying to balance these demands.
Botnen, Trond and Leiv Lunde
UNDP reform: Challenges and Options. Lysaker: The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 34 pp. (Development and Multilateral Institutions Programme; Working
This project studies the role and comparative
advantage of UNDP vis á vis other UN and MDB bodies. It is an empirical
case study on the UNDP's current activities in China, with particular reference
to the environmental sector. This study gives an outline of how UNDP has
tackled the present situation, and to what extent it makes an effort at
co-ordinating the activities of other UN bodies. Furthermore, its relations
with the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank will be studied, including
how the UNDP-supported Agenda 21 process relates to the World Bank-supported
National Environmental Action Plan (NEAP). Finally, the complex relations
between UNDP and the domestic institutional structure is
Protecting the Polar Marine Environment: Aspects of the 1982 UN Convention on the Law of the Sea. Lysaker: Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 20 pp. (Polar Oceans Reports; No. 1, 1996)
The analysis in this report aims at scrutinizing the environmental provisions of the 1982 UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (LOS Convention) with a view to their applicability to the polar oceans. The author focuses more closely on two Parts of the LOS Convention of major relevance for the topic: Part XI, on "Enclosed or Semi-Enclosed Seas", and Part XII, on "Protection and Preservation of the Marine Environment". He addresses, in final remarks, some of the reproaches to the LOS Convention from the point of view of its utility for the protection of the polar marine environment.
Protecting the Polar Marine Environment through Regional Cooperation. Lysaker: Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 31 pp. (Polar Oceans Reports; No. 2, 1996)
Cooperative efforts towards the protection of the marine environment through regional collaboration in the Arctic and the Antarctic are juxtaposed in this report. International cooperative processes in the two polar regions since the late 1980s are described, and their outcomes analyzed in the light of both differences and similarities of the Arctic and the Antarctic. Three aspects of the approaches to marine environmental protection in polar regions are examined more closely: 1) the application of anticipatory approach; 2) the adaptation of environmental protection standards to special polar circumstances; 3) the criteria used in the determination of the area of application of instruments for environmental protection in the polar regions.
Joyner, Christopher C.
The 1991 Madrid Environmental Protection Protocol: Contributions to Marine Pollution Law. Lysaker: Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 15 pp. (Polar Oceans Reports; No. 3, 1996)
This report describes and analyses the provisions of the 1991 Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty, and relates these to general international environmental law in the sphere of marine pollution. Following a brief overview of the sources and legal framework for marine pollution in general, the author turns on to marine pollution provisions of the 1991 Antarctic Environmental Protocol and its annexes, providing in conclusion a balance sheet of the Protocol's contribution to marine pollution law.
The Role of State Practice in the Formation of International Law for Straits in the Russian Arctic: Jurisdiction vs. Environmental Protection. Lysaker: Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 32 pp. (Polar Oceans Reports; No. 4, 1996)
The analysis of State practice in this report takes as a goal the clarification of the provisions of the 1982 UN Convention on the Law of the Sea on international straits, and on ice-covered areas, as well as their interrelation. The Russian coastal state practice and the United States navigational and declarative practice in the Russian Arctic is then viewed in the light of these provisions. Conclusions on the legal effect of the relevant LOS Convention provisions and on the impact of state practice are drawn, and recommendations for conflict resolution are forwarded.
Infante, Maria Teresa
Issues of Jurisdiction in Polar Oceans: Flag and Coastal State Jurisdiction and Pollution Control in Antarctica. Lysaker: Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 23 pp. (Polar Oceans Reports; No. 5, 1996)
The current trend in the evolution of the Antarctic Treaty System (ATS) after the adoption of the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty in 1991 is characterized by the introduction of substantive and operational aspects related to the protection of the marine environment. This poses both theoretical and practical challenges in two aspects: 1) the issue of jurisdiction as envisioned by the main instruments composing the ATS, and its consequences in the field of marine environmental protection; 2) the impact of mechanisms provided for by instruments adopted independently from the ATS on the marine environmental protection in the Antarctic area. The report contains a general assessment of the main problems of implementation of the Protocol in the light of these challenges.
Herr, Richard A.
Living Resource Management in the Southern Ocean: The Effects of Regime Overlap. Lysaker: Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1996. 20 pp. (Polar Oceans Reports; No. 6, 1996)
This report seeks to explore both the general
theoretical issues and the specific consequences of overlapping regimes on the
management of the Southern Ocean living resources. Accordingly, in the first
part of the report, the author deals with the questions of definition, nature,
origins and consequences of regime overlap. This provides the framework for the
second part of the report, which focuses on regime overlap in the Southern
Ocean. The analysis comprises various aspects of relation between the
provisions of the Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Seals, the
Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources, the
Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty, and the UN
Convention on the Law of the Sea, as well as the decision of the International
Whaling Commission, of May 1994, to establish a whale sanctuary applicable in
the Southern Ocean.
Bergesen, Helge Ole Slutten på en grønn drøm? (The end of a green dream?) Bergens Tidende 30. august 1996
Bergesen, Helge Ole Miljøpolitikken: Fra pioner til sinke. (Environmental policy: From pioneer to laggard) S. 18-20 i: Tidens Tegn. - Vol. 4, no 12 (1996)
Buen, Jørund I skyggen av EU-kampen (In the shadow of the EU struggle). Morgenbladet 13. september 1996
Dahl, Agnethe og Liv Astrid Sverdrup Norge - et nikkedokkeland (Norway - a puppet country) Dagbladet 16. september 1996
Eikeland, Per Ove Strukturendringer i markedet - konkurransereformen inn i en ny fase? (Changes in market structure - competition enters a new phase?) Kraftjournalen. - Vol. 1, no. 1 (1996). - S. 50-51.
Hønneland, Geir B. Forventinger og misnøye blant russere (Expectations and discontent among Russians). Nordlys 12. september 1996
Martinsen, Kåre Dahl Miljø-millioner uten effekt? (Millions invested in the environment - without effect?) Dagbladet 28. november 1996
Stokke, Olav Schram Different views : Environmental protection under the Arctic Council. - WWF Arctic Bulletin, 1996, no. 4
Stokke, Olav Schram Who is who: The Fridtjof Nansen Institute. - WWF Arctic Bulletin, 1996, no. 3
Sverdrup, Liv Astrid Berntsens nasjonale ansvar : Hvor tålmodig har en miljøvernminister lov til å være? (Mr Berntsens national responsibility: How much patience is a Minister of the environment allowed?) Arbeiderbladet 25. september 1996.
Tangen, Kristian og Jørund Buen Skyttergravskrig om gasskraft (The trench war over gas-generated power). Morgenbladet 9. august 1996
Wettestad, Jørgen Ikke bare Norges fortjeneste : Sur nedbør: Er problemet løst - og hvordan? (Not only Norway's merit: Acid rain - is the problem solved? and how?) Arbeiderbladet 21. november 1996
Østreng, Willy International scientific evaluations : When, what and why : The INSROP sceme and experience. - The INSROP Newsletter, 1996, nr. 2
The price list below must be taken as a rule of thumb. Many FNI publications will be priced on an individual basis. When ordering several copies of a publication, the first three - 3 - will carry full price, the rest half price. Students as well as educational and research institutions will enjoy a 50% rebate. Postage and handling expenses - NOK 50.00 - will be added.
An invoice will be included with the ordered