FNI Publications 1997

This 1997 list of publications from the Fridtjof Nansen Institute is presented in the following categories: A summary in English is given for each publication. All publications published at the Institute can be ordered from the Institute. 
 
Books (monographs, anthologies)

Bergesen, Helge Ole and Willy Østreng
Internasjonal Politikk. (International Politics). - 7th. edition. - Oslo : Aschehoug Forlag, 1997. - 216 pp. - In Norwegian. 
This book is a basic introduction to international relations and covers security and military affairs after the cold war, north-south relations and Norwegian foreign policy. This edition is totally revised and rewritten. 

Bergesen, Helge Ole, Magnus Hermansson and Willy Østreng
Internationell Politik. - Malmø, Sweden : Gleerup forlag, 1997. - 152 pp. - In Swedish. 
This is a translation of the 6th. edition of the above. The book has been adjusted to satisfy the requirements of the Swedish school system - and therefore Magnus Hermansson is a co-author. 

Bergesen, Helge Ole, Georg Parmann and Øystein B. Thommessen (eds.)
Green Globe Yearbook of International Co-operation on Environment and Development 1997. - Oxford : Oxford University Press, 1997. - 368 pp. 
The Yearbook aims to demonstrate where the international community stands with regard to solving specific environment and development problems through international co-operation, main obstacles to effective solutions, and how to overcome them. 

Bergesen, Helge Ole, Georg Parmann and Øystein B. Thommessen (eds.)
Green Globe Yearbook of International Co-operation on Environment and Development 1997 : Chinese version. - Beijing : China Environmental Science Press, 1997. - 410 pp. 

Estrada, Estrada, Kristian Tangen and Helge Ole Bergesen
Environmental Challenges Confronting the Oil Industry. - Chichester : Wiley & Sons, 1997. - 194 pp. 
The book analysis the response of the oil industry to the environmental challenge in general, and climate change more specifically. 

Vidas, Davor (ed.)
Arctic Development and Environmental Challenges : Information Needs for Decision-making and International Co-operation. - Gentofte, Denmark : Scandinavian Seminar College, 1997. - 207 pp. 
This book, edited at the Fridtjof Nansen Institute, contains proceedings of a high-level Nordic policy seminar on Arctic affairs, co-organised by the Scandinavian Seminar College, UNEP/GRID Arendal and the FNI.
 

Articles Published in Scientific Journals, Anthologies, Yearbooks, Proceedings etc. with Peer Review

Børsting, Georg and Gunnar Fermann
Climate Change Turning Political : Conference Diplomacy and Institution-building to Rio and Beyond. - Pp. 53.82 in: International politics of climate change : Key issues and critical actors / edited by Gunnar Fermann. - Oslo : Universitetsforlaget, 1997. - 472 pp. 
This chapter summarises the response of the international community to climate change up to the second conference of the parties in Geneva in July 1996. 

Dahl, Agnethe
National Freedom of Action in EU Environmental Policy: The Case of Denmark and the Netherlands. - Pp. 68-98 in: Environmental Politics, Vol. 6, No 3 (1997) 
Within the legal framework for EU environmental policy there is room for independent national action. Between Denmark and the Netherlands, however, differences exist as to the perception and use of freedom of action. 

Eleri, Ewah Otu
Africa and Climate Change. - Pp. 265-284 in: International Politics of Climate Change : Key issues and critical actors / edited by Gunnar Fermann. - Oslo : Universitetsforlaget, 1997. - 472 pp. 
The author observes that Sub-Saharan Africa's past and present contribution to the build-up of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere is comparably insignificant. 

Haugland, Torleif, Kjetil Ingeberg and Kjell Roland
Price Reforms in the Power Sector : The World Bank's Role. - Pp. 1041-1050 in: Energy policy. - Vol. 25, no. 13 (1997) 
This article assesses the World Bank's contribution to economic reforms in the power sector. Aggregate figures for the sector suggest that the Bank's success has been limited. Using a simple counter-factural analysis, it is shown that an inefficient power sector can seriously hurt development. In some detail, the past performance of the Bank in Malaysia, Indonesia, Zimbabwe and Colombia is reviewed with respect to loan agreement covenants, recipient compliance and tariff development. 

Hønneland, Geir B. 
Integrasjon vs. autonomi : en tilnærming til sivil-militære forhold i Russland. (Integration vs. Autonomy : An Approach to Civil-military Relations in Russia). - Pp. 37-49 in: Nordisk Østforum. - Vol 11, No 3 (1997). - In Norwegian. 
The article provides an introduction to models employed for studying civil-military relations in the Soviet Union and assesses their applicability today. 

Hønneland, Geir B., Trond Davidsen and Frode Nilssen
Utviklingen i nordvestrussisk fiskerinæring : implikasjoner for norske aktører. (The Development in the Fisheries Sector of North-western Russia : Implications for Norwegian Actors). - Pp. 281-301 in: Internasjonal Politikk. - Vol 55, No 2 (1997). - In Norwegian. 
This article discusses four different future scenarios for the fisheries sector of North-western Russia and their implications for various interest groups in Norway. 

Kotov, Vladimir, Elena Nikitina, Alexei Roginko, Olav S. Stokke, David G. Victor and Ronnie Hjort
Implementation of International Environmental Commitments in Countries in Transition. - Pp. 103-128 in: MOCT-MOST. - Vol 7, No 2 (1997) 
This article summarises results of a three-year international project on the implementation of environmental commitments, focusing on factors such as review procedures and inclusion of target groups; the present article focuses on economies in transition. 

Martinsen, Kåre Dahl
Niedergang der Demokratie in der Slowakei? (The Decline of Slovak Democracy ).- Pp. 791-809 in: Osteuropa. - Vol 47, No 8 (1997). - In German. 
This article attempts a classification of the various mechanisms for suppressing democratic rights and market economic mechanisms in Slovakia since independence in 1993. 

Martinsen, Kåre Dahl
Sentral-Europa og EU - og Norges fravær. (Central-Europe and the EU - and Norway's Absence). - Pp. 93-112 in: Internasjonal politikk. - Vol 55, No 1 (1997). - In Norwegian. 
This is an analysis of the relationship between the EU and the Central European applicant countries. Finally, some comments on the consequences for Norway are presented. 

Rønnfeldt, Carsten F.
Three Generations of Environment and Security Research. - Pp. 473-482 in: Journal of Peace Research. - Vol 34, No 4 (1997). 
Scholarly work on the concept of environment and security can be divided into three 'generations'. The first emerged with the work of Richard Ullman in the early 1980s claiming that environmental factors should be integrated into the concept of security. The second 'generation' commenced with the work of Thomas Homer-Dixon in the early 1990s, which aimed at identifying the causal pathways from environmental scarcity to conflict by means of empirical case studies. It is argued that an emerging third 'generation' addressing some of the methodological shortcomings of the former approaches may improve our understanding of the relationship between environment and security. 

Stokke, Olav Schram
Regimes as Governance System. - Pp. 27-63 in: Global Governance : Drawing Insights from the Environmental Experience / edited by O.R. Young. - Cambridge, MA : MIT Press, 1997. 
This article relates the literature on international regimes to that of global governance, arguing that the context- and process-oriented strands of the former will have much to contribute to the latter, especially regarding the state-society interphase. 

Stokke, Olav Schram
Understanding the Formation of International Regimes : The Discursive Challenge. - Pp. 129-148 in: The International Politics of Environmental Management / edited by Arild Underdal. - Dordrecht : Kluwer, 1997. 
This article contrasts a range of 'discursive' (or 'reflective') approaches to the study of regime formation, to mainstream rationalist theory, arguing that some of the former may strengthen the force of the latter. 

Wettestad, Jørgen 
Acid Lessons? LRTAP Implementation and Effectiveness. - Pp. 235-249 in: Global Environmental Change. - Vol 7, No 3 (1997) 
The article reviews current literature on LRTAP implementation and effectiveness, and suggests ten, main "acid answers" and lessons based on the literature so far. 
 

Articles Published in Other Scientific, Academic Journals and Anthologies

Andersen, Regine
Challenges for the Indian Power Sector. - Pp. 8-11 in: Business Monitor India. - Vol. 3, no. 20 (1997) 
The Indian power sector sticks in deep crisis and threatens economic development in the country. At the other hand there is more than enough electricity there for the present demand, if it would be utilised in a more financial viable and sustainable way. However, there are crucial political, institutional and economic barriers to reform in such a direction. The article points out some of these barriers and identifies points of departure for change. It also discusses the present response of the Government of India to the crisis and shows why it is not adequate to meet the challenges. 

Dahl, Agnethe
Slik påvirker du EU-parlamentet (How to influence the EU parliament). - P. 4 in: Europamagasinet. - No 2, 1997. - In Norwegian. 
Lobbyism is an important part of the EU decision-making system. In order to influence the development of EU policy, Norway, as an EEA country, depends on this informal structure more than any other state. The European Parliament is one of several arenas for Norwegian lobbyists. 

Hansen, S.E.
Seawatch, Performance and Future. - Pp. 69-80 in: Jung-Keuk Kang and Jan Magne Markussen (Eds): Korean-Norwegian Workshop on Ocean Mining: Technical and Environmental Challenges. - Seoul and Lysaker : KORDI and FNI, 1997. - 164 pp. 
This paper describes the performance and future of the Seawatch system. 

Klepsvik, John O. and Morten L. Bjarnar
Laser Radar Technology for Underwater Imaging and Mapping: A Novel Laser Imaging and Ranging System Capable of operating down to 6.000 meters offers 3D Imaging of Video Quality at Distances 4-5 Times Greater than Conventional Video and Photogr. - Pp. 99-110 in: Jung-Keuk Kang and Jan Magne Markussen (Eds.): Korean-Norwegian Workshop on Ocean Mining: Technical and Environmental Challenges. - Seoul : KORDI ; Lysaker : FNI, 1997. - 164 pp. 
The paper presents Laser Radar Technology for Underwater Imaging and Mapping. 

Markussen, Jan Magne, Willy Østreng, Paal Pettersen and Odd Erik Faråsengen
Deep Seabed Mining : Technical, Environmental and Economic Challenges : Norwegian Competence and Potential for Korean-Norwegian Co-operation. - Pp. 17-29 in: Korean/Norwegian Workshop on Ocean Mining : Technical and Environmental Challenges : 2.3 -April 1997. - Seoul and Lysaker : Korea Ocean Research and Development Institute and Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1997. 
The paper provides an overview of Norwegian competence in deep seabed mining, and evaluates how the Norwegian companies view the perspectives for the commercial exploitation of deep seabed minerals and the role the companies feel they may play in this area in the years ahead. The technological, environmental and economic challenges in deep seabed mining are assessed and the possibilities that exist for establishing a comprehensive Korean-Norwegian co-operation in this area are emphasized. 

Markussen, Jan Magne
Dyphavsbasert mineralutvinning : Kommersiell produksjon om 3 1/2 år? (Deep Seabed Mining: Commercial Exploitation in 3 1/2 years?).- P. 11 in: Shipping og Offshore Aktuelt. - Medlemsblad for Norges Rederiforbund. - No 2, 1997. 
The article evaluates the possibilities to start commercial exploitation of polymetallic nodules off Cook Islands. 

Markussen, Jan Magne
International Co-operation in Deep Seabed Mining. - Pp. 610-625 in: Sustainable Development and Preservation of the Oceans: The Challenges of UNCLOS and Agenda 21. - Honolulu, USA : The Law of the Sea Institute, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, 1997. - 879 pp. 
The article discusses deep seabed mining and the possibilities of establishing stronger international co-operation. 

Marthiniussen, Roar, Klepaker, Rolf Arne and Størkersen, Nils
HUGIN: Un-Tethered Instrument Carrier for Deep Water Survey. - Pp. 81-90 in: Jung-Keuk Kang and Jan Magne Markussen (Eds.): Korean-Norwegian Workshop on Ocean Mining: Technical and Environmental Challenges. - Seoul : KORDI ; Lysaker : FNI, 1997. - 164 pp. 
The paper presents a mapping and inspection system - HUGIN - based on an untethered vehicle. 

Ous, Ole Chr.
Survey Control, Maritime Operation Control and Chart Production. - Pp. 131-142 in: Jung-Keuk Kang and Jan Magne Markussen (Eds.): Korean-Norwegian Workshop on Ocean Mining: Technical and Environmental Challenges. - Seoul : KORDI ; Lysaker : FNI, 1997. - 164 pp. 
The paper discusses survey control, maritime operation control and chart production. 

Pøhner, Freddy
Technology for Mapping and Inspection of the Ocean Seafloor - With Special Emphasis on Deep Sea Exploration. - Pp. 31-46 in: Jung -Keuk Kang and Jan Magne Markussen (Eds): Korean-Norwegian Workshop on Ocean Mining: Technical and Environmental Challenges. - Seoul and Lysaker : KORDI and FNI, 1997. - 164 pp. 
The paper discusses technology for mapping and inspection of the deep ocean seafloor. 

Rønfeldt, Carsten
Linking Research on Environment, Poverty and Conflict. - Pp. 53-98 in: Dan Smith and Willy Østreng (eds): Research on Environment, Poverty and Conflict : A Proposal. - Oslo : PRIO, 1997. - 109 pp. 
In order to design development strategies that are both sustainable and environmentally sound, this article aims at improving insights in the relationship between environment, poverty and conflict. The article surveys scholarly work on this topic and finds that the field has been insufficiently explored. In a critical review of research linking environment and security, the article identifies points of departures for a relevant research agenda. 

Stokke, Olav Schram and Geir B. Hønneland
Miljø- og fiskeriforvaltningen i Barentshavet : Globale rammer, regionale grep. (Environmental and Fisheries Management in the Barents Sea: Global Frameworks, Regional Initiatives). - Pp. 57-69 in: ProSus - tidsskrift for et bærekraftig samfunn. - Vol 5, No 4 (1997) 
The article provides an overview of the management of the Barents Sea environment and fisheries. 

Stokke, Olav Schram
Regional Dynamics for Protection of the Marine Environment. - Pp. 159-183 in: Europe's Northern Dimension : The BEAR Meets the South / edited by Lassi Heininen and Richard Langlais. - Rovaniemi : University of Lapland, Arctic Centre, 1997. 
This article reviews the contributions of the Barents region process, broadly defined, for protection of the Barents Sea marine environment, focusing both on the unique qualities of this process and its linkages to other co-operative levels. 

Tangen, Kristian 
Spillet i kulissene : Om oljeindustriens klima-lobbying. (Playing in the Wings : The Climate Lobbying of the Oil Industry). - Pp. 10 in: ProSus, No 3, 1997. 
The article offers an analysis of the arguments and instruments used by the international oil industry in the climate change debate. 

Østreng, Willy and Dan Smith
Editors' Introduction on the Environment, Poverty and Conflict. - Pp. 5-12 in: Dan Smith and Willy Østreng (eds): Research on Environment, Poverty and Conflict : A Proposal. - Oslo : PRIO, 1997. 
The overall research aim of this preparatory project has been to explore the determinants between and among the three key variables - the environment, poverty and conflict - in making economic development environmentally sustainable. 

Østreng, Willy
The Post-Cold War Arctic : Challenges and Transition During the 1990s. - Pp. 33-49 in: Arctic Development and Environmental Challenges : Information Needs for Decision-making and International Co-operation / edited by Davor Vidas.- Gentofte, Denmark, Scandinavian Seminar College, 1997. - 207 pp. 
This chapter analyses the basic political and conceptual framework for the contemporary Arctic co-operation. 

Østreng, Willy (ed.)
National Security and International Environmental Cooperation in the Arctic: The Case of the Northern Sea Route. - INSROP Working Paper no. 83-1997. - Lysaker : Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1997. - 279 pp. contains the following articles: 

Østreng, Willy 
International Use of the Northern Sea Route : What is the Problem?
Pp. 1-22 in: INSROP Working paper no. 83-1997. - Op.cit. 
This paper focus on the environmental prerequisites stemming from the fragility, vulnerability and functioning of the Arctic bioregion. Its overall purpose is to identify and substantiate political interdependencies existing between states acting within, belonging to and depending upon a functioning ecosystem within more or less definite spatial confines. 
Østreng, Willy 
National Security and the Evolving Issues of Arctic Environment and Cooperation. - Pp. 23-56 in: INSROP Working paper no. 83-1997. - Op. cit. 
The purpose of this chapter is to address the implications of the processes of civilianisation, regionalisation, mobilisation and reconceptualisation of security to Arctic security and environmental co-operation, and to assess their relevance for the utilisation of the Northern Sea Route. The focus is on the declared goals and political rhetoric of Arctic governments when it comes to the interrelationship between environmental protection, comprehensive security and international co-operation. 
Vartanov, Raphael, Alexei Roginko and Vladimir Kolossov 
Russian Security Policy 1945-96: The Role of the Arctic, the Environment and the NSR. - Pp. 57-112 in: INSROP Working paper no. 83 - 1997. - Op. cit. 
The authors attempt to analyse the probability of two different scenarios to happen in Russian Arctic security and environmental policy: the hard-line policy of unrestricted exploitation of northern resources and policy of co-operative security seeking international co-operation in resource and security exploitation of the Arctic. 
Griffiths, Franklyn 
Environment and Security in Arctic Waters: A Canadian Perspective. - Pp. 113-148 in INSROP Working paper no.83 - 1997. - Op. cit. 
The author is prompted by a need to anticipate and possibly to respond to the environmental consequences of substantial year-round international shipping through Russia's Northern Sea Route. He seeks to develop a Canadian perspective on the question of whether or not to define and make use of the concept of environmental security. 
Østreng, Willy 
Norwegian Security Policy: The Role of the Arctic, the Environment and the NSR. - Pp. 149-192 in: INSROP Working paper No. 83 - 1997. - Op. cit. 
The focus of this paper is on the changing features of the northern dimension of Norwegian Security policy as it emerges in the systemic transition from Cold War bipolarity to the increasing multipolarity of the present 

Griffiths, Franklyn 
Environment in the U.S. Discourse on Security: The Case of the Missing Arctic Waters. - Pp. 193-222 in: INSROP Working paper No. 83 - 1997. - Op. cit. 
This paper asks whether and if the United States might employ new understandings of security in the management of Arctic waters issues, in particular to the prospect of intensified use of Russia's Northern Sea Route 

Østreng, Willy 
Danish Security Policy: The Role of the Arctic, the Environment and Arctic Navigation. - Pp. 223-256 in: INSROP Working paper No. 83 - 1997. - Op. cit. 
The focus of this paper is on the relationship between the Home Rule and Central Government in security matters pertaining to Greenland in the systemic transition from Cold War bipolarity to the increasing multipolarity of the present. 

Østreng, Willy 
The NSR in the Context of Arctic Environmental Cooperation and National Security: Some Concluding Remarks. - Pp. 257-281 in: INSROP Working paper No. 83 - 1997.- Op. cit. 
The focus of this chapter is on the interrelatedness of regional environmental co-operation and national security as expressed in the pan-Arctic processes of regionalisation, civilianisation, mobilisation and reconceptualisation of security. A main objective is to explore into the inherent nature of various concepts of security and to suggest some necessary clarifications of theoretical and practical significance. 

FNI Research Reports (R)

Estrada, Javier and Helge Ole Bergesen (eds.) 
Energy Structures as Determinants of Response to Climate Change: Case Studies of Brazil, China, India and Mexico. - Lysaker : The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1997. - 123 pp. - (R:001-1997) 
This report consists of four country studies covering energy structures in China, Brazil, Mexico and India, written by experts from each country. The studies show that the energy sector in these countries is closely linked to the state and the political objectives of the governments. 

Laugen, Torunn and Tangen, Kristian 
The World Bank and the United Nations in Gaza : A Model for Multilateral Aid to State-less Societies? - Lysaker : The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1997. - 22 pp. - (R:002-1997) 
This is a study of the efforts of co-ordinating multilateral aid to the Occupied Territories, and the Gaza strip in particular, over the period 1993 to 1996. 

Tangen, Kristian 
Nuclear Energy in Western Europe : At the End of its Business Cycle? A review of Policies in Selected West European Countries and Russia. - Lysaker : The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1997. - 75 pp. - (R:003-1997) 
The goal of the report is to sum up the presentations and discussions at seven seminars on nuclear energy policies: What are the major driving forces and what are the future prospects of nuclear energy? 

Claes, Dag Harald 
Norsk gasseksportpolitikk : håndtering av ytre endring. - (Norwegian Gas Export Policy : the Management of External Change). - Lysaker : The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1997. - 60 pp. - (R:004-1997). - In Norwegian. 
The report develops a model for the approach to the study of connections between changes in the European gas market and Norwegian petroleum policy. It goes on to present a historical outline of Norwegian gas export policy. The main focus of the report is on the empirical explanation of the connections between changing external conditions and changes in Norwegian gas export policy. 

Martinsen, Kåre Dahl 
Utvidelsen av EU og NATO - konsekvenser for Norge. - (Extending EU and NATO - What are the Consequences for Norway). - Lysaker : The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1997. - 169 pp. - (R:005-1997).- In Norwegian. 
In the report, the impending extension of EU and NATO membership to countries in Central Europe is analysed. Focus is directed both towards the countries selected and the organisations. Finally, the consequences for Norway are discussed. 

Grenier, Samuel 
France and Norway : The Unfulfilled Troll-agreement. - Lysaker : The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1997. - 59 pp. - (R:006-1997) 
This report starts by presenting Norway as an oil and gas producer and an exporting country - and France as an importing country. The relations between France and Norway during the Troll gas negotiations and the compensation policy adopted by the French authorities during these negotiations are described. 

Hønneland, Geir and Frode Nilssen 
Politiske rammebetingelser for nordvestrussisk fiskerinæring. - (The Political Framework of Northwest Russian Fishing Industry). - Lysaker : The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1997. - 21 pp. - (R:007-1997). - In Norwegian. 
The report points at various political processes and "tensions" - both at a federal and a regional level - which influence the activities of Northwest Russian fishing industry. 
 

Development and Multilateral Institutions - Research Reports

Kroksnes, Ingunn 
Non-Governmental Organisations and Development Policies : Identifying and Explaining Strategies : The Case of the World Bank's Narmada Dam Project. - Lysaker : The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1997. - 76 pp. - (Development and Multilateral Institutions Programme ; Research Report ; no. 1) 
The aim of this thesis is to contribute with a first step towards theory-building by developing an analytical framework for identifying NGO strategies and the circumstances or factors that can explain NGOs' choice of strategies. 

Botnen, Trond K. 
Funding for the Global Environment - Determined by National or Common Objectives? A Case Study of the GEF Negotiations. - Lysaker : The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1997. - 101 pp. - (Development and Multilateral Institutions Programme : Research Report ; no. 2) 
This is a case study of the negotiations to create and restructure GEF. The analysis aims at assessing whether the outcome of the negotiations was determined by national objectives ("realism"), or by common objectives ("idealism"). 

Ravlum, Inger Anne 
Byrdebærere og gratispassasjerer : Staters oppslutning om de multilaterale bistandsorganisasjonene. (Burden-bearers and Freeriders : States' Support for the Multilateral Aid Organisations). - Lysaker : The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1997. - 132 pp. - (Development and Multilateral Institutions Programme : Research Report ; no. 3). - In Norwegian. 
Major states yield a smaller proportion of their support multilaterally than do minor states. Nevertheless, the share of multilateral aid provided by major states increased from 1981/85 to 1991/95, whilst that of the minor states declined. 
 

EED Reports (EED)

Andersen, Regine 
Challenges for Sustainable Electricity Sectors in Developing Countries : With Case Studies from Zambia, Zimbabwe, India and Thailand. - Lysaker : The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1997. - 79 pp. - (EED 1/97) 
In this report, political, institutional and economic barriers to sustainable electricity strategies in developing countries are analysed and conclusions drawn regarding the activities of development agencies and banks. 
 

Forum for Norwegian China Competence - Publication Series

Buen, Jørund and Stein Hansen (ed.) 
Hong Kong - What now? - Proceedings 
Lysaker : The Fridjtof Nansen Institute, 1997. - 49 pp. - (Forum for Norwegian China Competence Publication Series ; 1-1997) 
The proceedings include the lectures of the keynote speakers at the seminar: Jan Farberg, Ministry of Trade and Industry; Peter Lo, Hong Kong Economic and Trade Office; Eivind Grøstad, Det Norske Veritas; and Øistein Thorsen, Fenwick Shipping. 

Scope for Sustainable Food Production in China - Proceedings
Lysaker : The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1997. - 40 pp. - (Forum for Norwegian China Competence Publication Series ; 2-1997) 
This publication presents the expert views of Nikos Alexandratos, FAO, and Gerhard Heilig, IIASA, on China's future food production and consumption, commented by Øystein Dahle, Worldwatch and Frik Sundstøl, Noragric, respectively. 

Buen, Jørund (ed.) 
Etter Deng - Quo Vadis Kina? (After Deng - Quo Vadis China?)
Lysaker : The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1997. - 21 pp. - (Forum for Norwegian China Competence Publication Series ; 3-1997). - In Norwegian. 
The publication sums up the seminar " After Deng - Quo Vadis China? ". T.Færøvik analyses changes in the Deng epoch, J.T. Holvik looks at prospects for economic reforms in China and O.A. Westad looks at the party and the policy in the future. 
 

INSROP Working Papers

Granberg, Alexander G. 
Selected Studies in Regional Economic Development along the Northern Sea Route 
Lysaker : The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1997. - 54 p. - (INSROP Working Paper ; no. 74) 
The analysis carried out in this working paper shows strong dependence of the Northern Sea Route functioning on the political and economic situation in Russia, especially in the Arctic and Subarctic regions. 

Yakolev, Anatoliy N., Arikaninen, Alexander I., Kossov, Oleg A. and Ushakov, Alexander P. 
Political Aspects of International Shipping along the Northern Sea Route Lysaker : The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1997. - 54 p. - (INSROP Working Paper ; no. 75) 
The paper contains analysis of the USSR (Russian) policy, as well as policies of other Arctic countries, towards international shipping in the Arctic in general and along the Northern Sea Route in particular. 

Semanov, G., Volkov, V., Somkin, V. and Iljushenko-Krylov, D. 
Coastal Pollution Emergency Plan - Part I Lysaker : The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1997. - 31 pp. - (INSROP Working Paper ; No. 76) 
The report provides the concept of the Oil Spill Contingency Plan (OSCP) for the Northern Sea Route. It also presents rescue organisations and data on types and amounts of the oil spill compating technical means in the NSR. 

Ramsland, Trond Ragnvald, Erik F. Loy and Sturle Døsen 
Northern Gas Field and NGH Technology : A Feasibility Study to Develop Natural Gas Hydrate Technology for the International Gas Markets Lysaker : The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1997. - 103 pp. - (INSROP Working Paper ; no. 77) 
The goal of this analysis was to examine whether a new technology for transporting natural gas, Natural Gas Hydrates (NGH), can compete with the existing technologies pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG). 

Tamura, Kenkichi and Hajime Yamaguchi 
Experimental Study to Separate into Components the Interaction Force between Propeller and Ice Piece Lysaker : The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1997. - 29 pp. - (INSROP Working Paper ; No. 78) 
This working paper provides further research results within the area of INSROP Project I.1.9, "Hydrodynamic Aspects in Ice/Propeller Interaction". Ice-propeller interaction is one of the major issues for the safety of a ship in ice. 

Brubaker, R. Douglas 
Environmental Regulation in the Russian Arctic Lysaker : The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1997. - 108 pp. - (INSROP Working Paper ; No. 79) 
The paper reviews the environmental regulations pertaining to the Russian Arctic. 

Grishchenko, V., E. Yakshevitch, O. Deviatayev, Yu. Shcherbakov, V. Smirnov and A. Shigabutdinov 
Design of Information System Lysaker : The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1997. - 46 pp. - (INSROP Working Paper ; No. 80) 
This report presents the results of work under INSROP project I.3.4 at the second and third stages. It shows the successive character of the Russian contribution to the design of the INSROP information system in 1994 and 1995. 

Hønneland, Geir B. 
Navigating the Straits of the Northern Sea Route Lysaker : The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1997. - 37 pp. - (INSROP Working Paper ; No. 81) 
The paper is the result of an investigation of Russian navigation charts and presents an overview of the straits along the Northern Sea Route (NSR), as well as a general introduction - although not a detailed guide - to navigation along the route. 

Baskin, A., V. Vasilyev, S. Samonenko, V. Isakov and E. Danilov 
Improvement of Information Support to Navigation along the NSR Lysaker : The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1997. - 40 pp . - (INSROP Working Paper ; No. 82) 
The report discusses the main categories of informational support to Arctic navigation: hydrometeorological and ice conditions forecasts and operative data. 

Østreng, Willy (editor) 
National Security and International Environmental Cooperation in the Arctic. The Case of the Northern Sea Route Lysaker : The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1997. - 279 pp. - (INSROP Working Paper ; No. 83) 
The basic objective of this report is to place the debate about the future of the Northern Sea Route into the larger picture of Arctic politics and the emerging agenda of the Arctic as a developing region in international society. 

Bulatov, Vladimir 
Historical and Current Uses of the Northern Sea Route. Part IV: The Administration of the Northern Sea Route (1917-1991) Lysaker : The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1997. - 100 pp. - (INSROP Working Paper ; No. 84) 
This working paper describes the administrative and political aspects of the Northern Sea Route during the Soviet period (1917-1991). It takes into account the impact of the Northern Sea Route on the Soviet society and national economy. 

Gold, Edgar, John A. Cantello and Peter L. Wright 
Marine Insurance for the Northern Sea Route : The Feasibility of a New Risk Regime. Some initial conclusions Lysaker : The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1997. - 34 pp. - (INSROP Working Paper ; No. 85) 
The paper concludes INSROP research concerning insurance for future shipping on the NSR. The main conclusion is optimism concerning the possibilities of getting the insurance industry to introduce a new risk regime for the NSR, if necessary. 

Isakov, N., E. Logvinovich, F. Moreynis, A. Nikulin, N. Popovich, A. Silin, N. Stenin, I. Sverdlov and V. Erashov 
Seaborne Exports of Gas from Yamal Lysaker : The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1997. - 112 pp. - (INSROP Working Paper ; No. 86) 
The report discusses the possibility of exporting Yamal gas with LNG tankers along the Northern Sea Route. 

Isakov, N., G. Serebryansky, A. Parfenov, T. Patrakova and N. Sadofieva 
Regional Port Development along the NSR Lysaker : The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1997. - 82 pp. - (INSROP Working Paper ; No. 87) 
The report provides an overview of the main ports along the NSR, and their facilities. 

Kolodkin, A. .L., O.V. Kulistikova and E. M. Mokhova 
Matters of Responsibility for Marine Pollution under the Legislation of the Russian Federation. (Review of the Main Legislative Acts) Lysaker : The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1997. - 36 pp. - (INSROP Working Paper ; No. 88) 
The report reviews all main Russian legislative acts pertaining to marine pollution. 

Isakov, N., A. Nikulin, N. Popovich and I. Sverdlov 
Marine Oil Transportation from Timan Pechora and Inland Russian Fields Lysaker : The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1997. - 114 pp. - (INSROP Working Paper ; No. 89) 
The report maps oil and gas export volumes from NW Russia, and discusses how a marine transport of this can be organised. 

Dallmann, Winfried K. 
Indigenous Peoples of the Northern Part of the Russian Federation and their Environment : Atlas and historical/ethnographical background information Lysaker : The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1997. - 146 pp. - (INSROP Working Paper ; No. 90) 
The report provides historical, demographical and cultural information about the indigenous population of Northern Russia, Siberia and the Russian Far East. 

Baskin, Alexander, Busuyev, Arkady and Yakshevich, Evgeny et al. 
Operational Aspects Volume 2 - 1994 project work Lysaker : The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1997. - 134 pp. - (INSROP Working Paper ; No. 91) 
Investigations on operational aspects of sailing the NSR - regulations, navigation, communications, safety of sailing, ice conditions, hydrometeorological problems etc. 

Simonsen, Henning 
Russia and its NSR Neighbours in Northeast Asia and the Barents Region : A Comparative View of Relations and Perceptions Lysaker : The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1997. - 60 pp. - (INSROP Working Paper ; No. 92) 
The report gives a comparison of the two Russian regions North West Russia and the Russian Far East concerning their relations with and perception of their Nordic and Asian neighbouring states, respectively. 

Osherenko, Gail, Shindler, Debra, Pika, Alexander, and Bogoyavlensky, Dmitry 
The Northern Sea Route and Native Peoples : Lessons from the 20th Century for the 21st. Lysaker : The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1997. - 122 pp. - (INSROP Working Paper ; No. 93) 
This report studies the effects, positive and negative, of Northern Sea Route (NSR) development on the indigenous populations of Alaska, Russia, and Scandinavia, with focus on Russia. 

Kolodkin, A.L., Markov, V.Yu, and Ushakov A.P. 
Legal Regime of Navigation in the Russian Arctic Lysaker : The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1997. - 56 pp. - (INSROP Working Paper ; No. 94) 
This working paper highlights Russian views of jurisdictional issues governing Arctic water north of the Russian coast. 
 

Polar Oceans Reports - POLOS

Boyle, Alan 
Globalism and Regionalism in the Protection of the Marine Environment . - Lysaker : The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1997. - 25 pp. - (POLOS report ; No. 1/1997) 
This report examines the relationship between regional regimes for the protection of the polar marine environment and the broader global context of the marine environmental protection and law of the sea. 

Elferink, Alex G. Oude 
The Sea of Okhotsk Peanut Hole : De Facto Extension of Coastal State Control. - Lysaker : The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1997. - 25 pp. - (POLOS report ; No. 2/1997) 
This report assesses the Russian unilateral measures in the context of relevant rules of international law regarding fisheries in the Sea of Okhotsk, and identifies differences of that sea from other cases. 

Stokke, Olav Schram 
Northwest Russia and the Dumping of Radioactive Waste : The London Convention Implemented. - Lysaker : The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1997. - 25 pp. - (POLOS report ; No. 3/1997) 
This report presents the regulation of radioactive waste under the international dumping regime and analyses Russian domestic implementation of that international regime. 

Rothwell, Donald 
Australian and Canadian Perspectives and Regulations for Protecting the Polar Marine Environment. - Lysaker : The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1997. - 25 pp. - (POLOS report ; No. 4/1997) 
This report contains a comparative assessment of how Australia and Canada have sought to implement a range of responses aimed at protecting the polar marine environment, in the Antarctic and Arctic, respectively. 

Stokke, Olav Schram 
Sub-regional Cooperation and Protection of the Arctic Marine Environment : The Barents Sea. - Lysaker : The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1997. - 25 pp. - (POLOS report ; No. 5/1997) 
This report focuses on marine environmental protection at the sub-regional level, narrowing in on two processes of particular relevance for the Barent Sea: the multilateral Barents Euro-Arctic Region and the bilateral Russo-Norwegian co-operation. 

Herr, Richard 
The International Regulation of Patagonian Toothfish : CCAMLR and High Seas Fisheries Management. - Lysaker : The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1997. - 25 pp. - (POLOS report ; No. 6/1997) 
This report addresses a newly emerged problem for the fisheries management in the Southern Ocean - unauthorised fishing of the Patagonian Toothfish - by tracing the emergence of the problem and responses by CCAMLR-Commission. 
 

FNI Notes (N)

Kristian Tangen 
Nye strukturer i det europeiske gassmarkedet. (New Structures in the European Gas Market). - Lysaker : The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1997. - 34 pp. - (N:001-1997). - In Norwegian. 
The aim of this study is to provide a background for elements of change in the European gas market that in the long run may produce new framework conditions for Norwegian gas exports. 

Wettestad, Jørgen and Ringius, Lasse 
'Friedheim in the Greenhouse' : Tracing Key Positions of Key Actors on Key Climate Issues. - Lysaker : The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1997. - 20 pp. - (N:002-1997) 
The interesting methodology developed by Robert Friedheim in "Negotiating the New Ocean Regime" serves as the methodological point of departure for this note, written within the "Modelling International Climate Negotiations" (MIN) research project. 

Stig Schjølset
Hvordan ivareta norske interesser i EU og EØS? (How to secure Norwegian interests in the EU and the EEA?) - Lysaker : The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1997. - 13 p. - (N:003-1997). - In Norwegian. 
This publication contains the proceedings from a EU/EEA seminar organised jointly by the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the FNI 24 April 1997. 

EU/ØS og norsk innflytelse (The EU/EEA and Norwegian influence). - Lysaker : The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 1997. - 31 p (N:004-1997). - In Norwegian. Compiled by Ivar M. Liseter. 
A compilation of centres of Norwegian EU/EEA competence and relevant publications, prepared for the EU/EEA seminar held at the FNI 24 April 1997. 
 

REPORTS published outside the Institute

Kang, Jung-Keuk and Jan Magne Markussen (eds.)
Korean/Norwegian Workshop on Ocean Mining : Technical and Environmental Challenges. - Seoul and Lysaker : Korea Ocean Research and Development Institute - KORDI and Fridtjof Nansen Institute - FNI, 1997. - 164 pp. 
The proceedings contains papers presented at the joint KORDI-FNI Workshop on Ocean Mining with special emphasis on deep sea exploration technology and environmental issues. 

Nilssen, Frode and Geir Hønneland
Nordvestrussisk fiskerinæring mot nye markeder : konsekvenser for norsk fiskerinæring. (Northwest Russian Fisheries towards New Markets : Consequences for the Norwegian Fishing Industry). - Tromsø : Fiskeriforskning, 1997. - 20 pp. - (Rapport ; 17/1997). - In Norwegian. 
The report provides an overview of the present state of Northwest Russian fisheries with an emphasis on fleet structure and market conditions. 

Smith, Dan and Willy Østreng (eds)
Research on Environment, Poverty and Conflict : A Proposal. - Publ. by Fridtjof Nansen Instate - FNI and International Peace Research Institute - PRIO. - Oslo : PRIO, 1997. - 109 pp. - (PRIO report ; 3/97) 
The overall research aim of this preparatory project has been to explore the determinants between and among the three key variables - the environment, poverty and conflict - in making economic development environmentally sustainable. 
 

Publications aimed at the general public (newspaper articles, newsletters etc.)

  • Bergesen, Helge Ole Kyoto på vektskålen. - Stavanger Aftenblad, 17. December 1997 
  • Buen, Jørund Selvstyre eller kaos. - Morgenbladet, 4. July 1997 
  • Dahl, Agnethe Lobbyist i Brussel (Lobbyist in Brussels) - Dagbladet, 17. April 1997 
  • Dahl, Agnethe and Jørgen Wettestad EUs klimapolitikk og Norge. - Arbeiderbladet, 9. April, 1997 
  • Eikeland, Per Ove Liberalisering, kreativitet og miljø. - Kraftjournalen. - Vol. 2, no. 3 (June 1997) 
  • Hønneland, Geir B. Ulikheter i Barentsregionen. - N66 - Kultur i Barentsregionen, 2/97 
  • Martinsen, Kåre Dahl Press på EØS? - Dagbladet, 21. April 1997 
  • Parmann, Georg Norges internasjonale miljøforpliktelser. - Bergens Tidende, 4. June 1997 
  • Parmann, Georg Hvalfangst mot elefantjakt? - Interpost, 23. June 1997. - http://www.interpost.no/aktuelt/utzin/kronikk/kronikk.arkiv/kronikk_11.html 
  • Parmann, Georg Ingen straff for å bryte internasjonale avtaler . - Miljø Aktuelt, No. 3, July 1997 
  • Parmann, Georg Miljøsamarbeid over landegrensene. - Hvor Hender Det? - Oslo : NUPI, 15. September 1997 
  • Parmann, Georg Hvordan finansiere den nye Noahs Ark? - Verdens Natur (WWF), No. 3/97 
  • Parmann, Georg Norsk miljøbok på kinesisk. - Forskning , No. 8, December 1997 
  • Schjølset, Stig Norge og EUs "klimaboble". - Dagbladet, 1. December 1997 
  • Wettestad, Jørgen Redder EU norsk luftkvalitet? - Dagbladet, 23. April, 1997 
  • Østreng, Willy Integration of INSROP Results: Do We Need It? - The INSROP Newsletter. - Vol. 5, no. 3 (December 1997) 

NEWSLETTERS

Nansen News : Newsletter from the Fridtjof Nansen Institute -
3 issues in 1997 

Norsk Kinaforum : Nyhetsbrev - 
1 issue in 1997 

The INSROP Newsletter - 
3 issues in 1997