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Summary of Working Paper No. 68-1996

I.4.1: Content of Database

By V. Vasilyev, L. Tsoy, Y. Glebko and L.Timofeeva, Central Marine Research and Design Institute (CNIIMF), St.Petersburg, Russia; and S. Brestkin, A. Buzuyev, Y. Gorbunov, S. Nikolayev, V. Porubayev, K. Teitelbaum and S. Frolov, Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute (AARI), St.Petersburg, Russia

PART I: Database on technical, operational and cost characteristics and ice performance of existing icebreakers of the Russian Arctic Fleet

The information database on technical and operational characteristics and ice properties of Russian icebreakers is of interest for specialists solving scientific and practical problems while transporting cargo along the Northern Sea Route. It may be used as a component of mathematical models in the simulation of transportation processes of bringing in - exporting cargoes or of transit navigation in arctic seas. Ranges of the variation of principal characteristics of 33 operating icebreakers are fairly wide: ice class - LL4 - LL1, displacement - 3000 - 24000 t, shaft power - 3 - 50 MW, icebreaking capability - 1.1 - 2.2 m. Having more than 70 information fields for each icebreaker, any potential shipper, freighter or holder of ships may find an optimum alternative of the icebreaking support. The information base is arranged in files of the Dbase III Plus structure being undoubtedly convenient for PC users.

PART II: Development of the base of cartography data in the form of electronic catalogue of charts

At present (early 1997) the catalogue database contains data on Russian charts along the whole NSR line and on attached regions: Frantz-Joseph Land and Spitsbergen. Selection of charts for navigation from Novaya Zemlia straits up to Murmansk and Archangelsk ports. So the catalogue contains data on all seas of the northern Russian coast.

In parallel with expansion of the electronic catalogue, work on maintenance of it's database at up-to date level is conducted. During 1996 more than 70 chart updatings were done. About 40 charts were issued for the first time, other updatings were done due to occurrence of new cartographical materials and corrections, published in Notices to Mariners (about 20).

The major part of the new charts are the coastal charts and plans of straits, harbours and northern ports (scales 1:25,000 - 1: 5,000 - about 20). As an example the chart Admiralty number 19455 for Pevek port with the scale 1: 10,000 with "A" sub-plan addendum "Oil pier moorings 1:1,000" - notices to mariners, 40 week issue can be represented.

The work on the catalogue was started for INSROP purposes but we plan to continue to update the catalogue independently of INSROP financing, because it is of value only in up-to-date state.

PART III:

The aim of INSROP Project 1.4.1, Part III is comprehensive use of the databases on ice, meteorological and hydrological conditions created at the AARI, for substantiating the possibility, safety and efficiency of international shipping along the NSR in various seasons of the year.

Examination of data available at the AARI, assessment of their volume and quality have shown that the AARI has sufficient information for addressing the goals of the Program. However, only a small portion of the work necessary for arranging this information, can be fulfilled within the framework of the Project.

Under these conditions it was considered advisable to focus on supplementing and adapting the databases available at the AARI and to develop a technology for their use which will allow the probability of favourable and unfavourable conditions of navigation along the Northern Sea Route to be estimated in the first approximation.

It is shown in the Report that an assessment of the probability of various types of navigation conditions can be made based on the available databases within the WMO framework. The obtained probability estimates should be corrected taking into account information on discontinuities in the ice cover and atmospheric, which is contained in the databases of observations from ships of opportunity.

The following work was performed:

INSROP00090000.gif An approach to employing climatic (review) databases in estimating the probability of encountering ice of different thickness along the ship motion route was developed. It is shown that this objective can be achieved on the basis of the regression analysis and classification of ice thickness distribution depending on navigation difficulty.

INSROP00090000.gif Technology for taking into account the generalized characteristics of discontinuities in the ice cover when selecting the routes for an escort of ships by icebreakers was evolved. The regions of the probable use of discontinuities along the route for navigation on anomalous early dates were identified. Modal orientation, the specific length, distribution of orientation and distribution of the length of discontinuities were calculated in grid points. It is shown in what way these data can be used for addressing the goals of INSROP. The results of calculating the generalized characteristics of discontinuities in April-June for the Laptev Sea were transferred to the INSROP Secretariat in the form of ASCII files.

INSROP00090000.gif Technology for the probabilistic assessment of the degree of ice pressures along the NSR based on multiyear data on atmospheric pressure was developed. A computer-based Handbook was prepared and transferred to the INSROP Secretariat. It allows estimates of the probability of varying ice pressures in the NSR region with a temporal resolution of one 10-day period and a spatial resolution of 200 km. The Handbook presents a set of the files with a total volume of 6 Mbytes.