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Norwegian Agriculture and Fisheries Policies Between International Regimes on Trade and the Environment

This project focused on how multilateral agreements on trade and the environment affect Norwegian domestic and foreign policies in the domain of agriculture and fisheries. Rules created under the World Trade Organisation (WTO) have had a potential to contribute to environmental improvements, among other things through increased transparency and removal of environmentally harmful subsidies. On the other hand, attempts to liberalise trade have sometimes conflicted with governments’ objectives to protect health, security and the environment within their territories.

We have studied how international obligations emanating from environmental and trade regimes, and the interaction between them, have affected various phases of Norwegian policy making:
   The scope for Norwegian domestic and foreign policy making on agriculture and fisheries.
   Norwegian positions in WTO negotiations in those two sectors.
   Goal achievement in these sectors.

Political science and economics have provided the disciplinary basis for this project.

Research questions:
   How have multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs), WTO and their interaction affected Norway’s scope for domestic policy making in agriculture and fisheries management? (Domestic output/decision-making process).
   How have MEAs, WTO and their interaction affected Norway’s positions on issues relevant to agriculture and fisheries in the WTO? (Phase: Domestic co-ordination process).
   How have MEAs, WTO and their interaction affected goal achievement within the two sectors? (In regime outputs or / and domestic outcomes).

The project was part of the Research Council of Norway's AREAL Programme.

Project leader: Kristin Rosendal

Project period: 2007-2011


Rosendal, G. Kristin, 'Adjusting Norwegian Agricultural Policy to the WTO through Multifunctionality: Utilizing the Environmental Potential?'. Journal of Environmental Policy and Planning, Vol 14, No 2, 2012, pp. 209-227.

Stokke, Olav Schram, 'International Fisheries Politics: From Sustainability to Precaution'. In Steinar Andresen, Elin Lerum Boasson and Geir Hønneland (eds), International Environmental Agreements: An Introduction. London/New York, Routledge, 2012, pp. 97-116.

Stokke, Olav Schram, 'Barents Sea Fisheries: The IUU Struggle', Arctic Review on Law and Politics, Vol 1, No 2, 2010, pp. 207-224.

Skjærseth, Jon Birger, 'Exploring the Consequences of Soft Law and Hard Law: Implementing International Nutrient Commitments in Norwegian Agriculture'. International Environmental Agreements, Vol 10, No 1, 2010, pp. 1-14.

Stokke, Olav Schram, 'Trade Measures and the Combat of IUU Fishing: Institutional Interplay and Effective Governance in the Northeast Atlantic'. Marine Policy, Vol 33, 2009, pp. 339-349.

Stokke, Olav Schram, 'Internasjonal fiskeripolitikk: Fra bærekraft til føre var' ('International Fisheries Politics: From Sustainability to Precaution'). In Andresen, Steinar, Elin Lerum Boasson and Geir Hønneland (eds): Internasjonal miljøpolitikk ('International Environmental Politics'). Bergen, Fagbokforlaget, 2008, pp. 121-132. In Norwegian.

Stokke, Olav Schram, 'Internasjonale utfordringer for marine ressurser' ('International Challenges Concerning Marine Resources'). In Globale Norge: Hva nå? Norske miljø- og ressursinteresser i en globalisert verden ('Global Norway: What Now? Norwegian Environmental and Resource Interests in a Globalized World'). Oslo, Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 2007, pp. 49-58. In Norwegian.
 Related focal points of research:

   Global environmental governance and law
   Biodiversity and genetic resources

Project funding:

   Research Council of Norway (AREAL Programme)

 External cooperation partners:

   Norwegian Agricultural Economics Research Institute (NILF)

Fridtjof Nansen Institute
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