| FNI PROJECTS
Key Actors and the Climate Regime: Lessons and Future
Key actors in the international climate regime have
been accumulating experiences from past and ongoing climate negotiations
from the workings of the Kyoto mechanisms, as well as from the implementation
of climate policies. The objective of this project was to bring together the
lessons that could be learned from the Kyoto Protocol implementation, and to
discuss the consequences for the negotiating positions of key actors, for
Norway's potential role in the negotiation process, and for the feasibility of
post-2012 climate agreements.
The project included studies of the
following state actors: The United States, EU, China and G-77. In
addition, non-state actors such as energy companies and environmental NGOs were
also studied. The aim of the case studies was to shed light on how
implementation of climate policies would affect the future of the international
regime. The study also analysed the implications for Norway.
addressed the following research questions:
To what extent, and how, are implementation experiences by
states and non-state actors likely to influence key actors' positions in the
upcoming negotiations on a continuation of the international climate regime
How can changes in negotiation
positions among key actors affect the probabilities of (effective) post-2012
How can technology programs and new
commitment types facilitate inclusion of more countries in the next commitment
What is the potential for Norway to play a
leadership or mediator role in the upcoming negotiation rounds, and what are
the most promising approaches?
The project was interdisciplinary,
applying insights from political science, economics, sociology, engineering,
and sinology. It was a strategic co-operation project between FNI and the
Center for International Climate and Environmental Research Oslo
(CICERO). More information is available on
FNI project team:
Gørild Heggelund (project leader)
Lars H. Gulbrandsen
Kasa, Sjur, Anne.
T. Gullhaug and Gørild Heggelund, 'The
Group of 77 in International Climate Negotiations: Recent Developments and
Future Directions'. International Environmental Agreements: Politics,
Law and Economics, Vol 8, No 2, 2008, pp. 113-127.
Fritzen, Helping People Build a
Better World? Barriers to More Environmentally Friendly Energy Production in
China: The Case of Shell. FNI Report 3/2008. Lysaker, FNI, 2008, 86
Andresen, Steinar, 'Mer enn bare "værsting"'
('The US & Climate: More than just a "baddie"'). Klassekampen,
29 November 2007. In Norwegian.
innsats' ('Gores Climate Efforts Unique'). Dagbladet, 12
October 2007. In Norwegian.
Sæverud, Ingvild Andreassen,
'Norway's Experience of Carbon
Dioxide Storage: A Basis for Pursuing International Commitments?'.
Climate Policy, Vol 7, No 1, 2007, pp. 13-28.
Gørild, 'China's Climate
Change Policy: Domestic and International Developments'. Asian
Perspective, Vol 31, No 2, 2007, pp. 155-191.
mot Bush' ('Climate: Schwarzenegger vs. Bush'), Dagbladet, 25 June
2007. In Norwegian.
Gulbrandsen, Lars H.,
skjebnevalg for miljøet' ('US Presidential Elections Fateful for the
Environment'), Aftenposten, 4 May 2007. In
Skodvin, Tora, Steinar Andresen and Jon Hovi (guest eds),
'Special Issue: The Negotiation and
Effectiveness of International Environmental Agreements'. Global
Environmental Politics, Vol 6, No 3, 2006, 143 p.
Skodvin, Tora and
Steinar Andresen, 'Leadership
Revisited'. Global Environmental Politics, Vol 6, No 3, 2006, pp.
China in the
International Politics of Climate Change: A Foreign Policy Analysis.
FNI report 12/2005. Lysaker, FNI, 2005, 82 p.
Bang, Guri, Gørild
Heggelund and Jonas Vevatne, Shifting
Strategies in the Global Climate Negotiations. FNI report 6/2005.
Lysaker, FNI, 2005, 30 p.
Andresen, Steinar, 'The Kyoto Protocol: Dead
End or Building Block'. Guest Commentary, Point Carbon Europe, 16
September, 2005, p. 3.
Bang, Guri, Andreas Tjernshaugen and Steinar
Andresen, Future US climate policy: International re-engagement?
International Studies Perspectives, Vol 6, 2005, pp.
Andresen, Steinar and Lars H. Gulbrandsen, 'The Role of Green NGOs in Promoting
Climate Compliance'. In: Stokke, Hovi and Ulfstein (eds.), Implementing
the Climate Regime: International Compliance. London, Earthscan, 2005, pp.
The Research Council of