| FNI PROJECTS
The EU Emissions Trading Scheme: Key Conditions and
Prospects for Effectiveness
emissions trading scheme (ETS) entered into force in October 2003. This
concludes a major policy shift in EU climate policy; from reluctance to
leadership in terms of the development of international emissions trading
Hence, a first aim of this project has been to explain this
major policy shift and the design of the emerging EU emissions trading system,
including the initial allocation of allowances. To what extent can we
understand the design of the system as the result of a traditional power-play
between governments (as emphasised by so-called liberal intergovernmentalism)
or do we have to bring in a much more complex and multi-layered perspective
(cf. so-called multilevel governance)? Not least, to what extent have major
stakeholders been consulted and given weight in the policy-making
It was assumed that a central condition for an effective
operation of the system was an inclusive and legitimate policy-making process.
Hence, on the basis of this analysis of the policy-making process, the second
aim of the project was to evaluate the prospective effectiveness of the scheme
at EU level as well as in selected member states.
The links between the
emerging Norwegian emissions trading system and the EU system was given special
Project leader: Jørgen Wettestad
'European Climate Policy:
Toward Centralized Governance?' Review of Policy Research, Vol 26,
No 3, 2009, pp. 311-328.
Skjærseth, Jon B. and Jørgen
Wettestad, 'The Origin,
Evolution and Consequences of the EU Emissions Trading System'. Global
Environmental Politics, Vol 9, No 2, 2009, pp.
Skjærseth, Jon Birger and Jørgen Wettestad, EU Emissions Trading: Initiation,
Decision-making and Implementation. Aldershot, Ashgate, 2008, 216
Skjærseth, Jon Birger and Jørgen Wettestad,
'Implementing EU Emissions Trading:
Success or Failure?'. International Environmental Agreements, Vol 8,
No 3, pp. 275-290.
Verification'. In Bodansky, D., J. Brunnee and E. Hey (eds), The Oxford
Handbook of International Environmental Law. Oxford, Oxford University
Press, 2007, pp. 974-995.
Sæverud, Ingvild Andreassen and
Jørgen Wettestad, 'Norway and
Emissions Trading: From Global Front-runner to EU Follower'.
International Environmental Agreements, Vol 6, No 1, 2006, pp.
Wettestad, Jørgen and Sæverud, Ingvild Andreassen,
Implementing EU Emissions Trading:
Institutional Misfit? FNI report 10/2005. Lysaker, FNI, 2005, 24
Sæverud, Ingvild Andreassen and Jørgen Wettestad,
utenfor EUs kvotesystem' ('Norway Outside EU's Quota System').
Aftenposten, 20 June 2005. In Norwegian.
and Ingvild Andreassen Sæverud, Implementing EU emissions trading:
Institutional misfit? Paper presented at the 7th Nordic Environmental
Social Science Research Conference, Gothenburg, Sweden, 15-17 June
Wettestad, Jørgen, 'The Making of the 2003 EU Emissions
Trading Directive: An Ultra-Quick Process due to Entrepreneurial
Proficiency?' Global Environmental Politics, Vol 5, No 1, 2005, pp.
Jørgen Wettestad, 'The Rapid EU Process: Causes and
consequences'. Environment, Vol 46, No. 9, 2004, pp
Christiansen, Atle C., The Role of Flexibility Mechanisms
in EU Climate Strategy: Lessons Learned and Future Challenges?.
International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics, Vol
4, 2004, pp. 27-46.
The Research Council of Norway