| FNI PROJECTS
The EU Energy and Climate Package: Causes, Content and
In 2007, the European Council
decided to reduce EU GHG emissions by 20% of the 1990 level by 2020. The key
challenge for the EU is now to adopt and implement effective policies and
measures capable of attaining this goal. EU goals and policies will have
significant consequences for Norway affiliated through the
In December 2008, the EU acted upon this challenge by
adopting the energy and climate package compromise, combining significantly
different energy-economic interests by mandatory policies covering different
sectors. The package represents a fundamentally new approach to collective EU
decision-making and implementation, based as it is on thorough economic impact
assessment. Further development and implementation of the package will,
however, also depend significantly on political factors: how has the EU been
able to balance the need for an ambitious package with legitimacy based on
acceptance among public and private actors? This question is crucial for the
future implementation of the package compromise, and is the background for this
The EU energy and climate package compromise is not
carved in stone. Changes have already been announced as a response to the
possibility of an adequate international climate agreement. The package also
contains elements that are still being negotiated and likely to change
regardless of international developments. This obviously could have
repercussions for the package compromise and for what goals and measures member
states and Norway will eventually have to implement. The project will provide
knowledge on how Norway is affected by the evolving package and lessons from
implementation in Norway and other countries that are part of or immediately
surrounding the Nordic energy market area, a crucial background factor for
Norwegian energy and climate policies.
The project is divided in three
parts: analysis of the 2008 package compromise; analysis of changes in the EU
energy and climate package compromise after 2008; and implementation of the
package in Norway and different member states.
leader: Jon Birger
krever større markeder' ('Renewable Energy Requires Larger
Markets'), Klima, 11.02.2013. In Norwegian.
mot strømmen' ('Electricity Legislation Against the Current'),
Masterbloggen, 17.01.2013. In Norwegian.
Christensen, Anne Raaum
and Lars H. Gulbrandsen, EU
Policies on Car Emissions and Fuel Quality: Reducing the Climate Impact from
Road Transport. FNI Report 14/2012. Lysaker, FNI, 2012, 66
Eikeland, Per Ove,
EU Energy Policy
Integration - Stakeholders, Institutions and Issue-linkages. FNI Report
13/2012. Lysaker, FNI, 2012, 139 p.
Skjærseth, Jon Birger,
'Governance by EU Emissions Trading:
Resistance or Innovation in the Oil Industry?'. International
Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics, Vol 13, No 1, 2013,
An Electric Mandate: The EU
procedure for harmonising cross-border network codes for electricity.
FNI Report 18/2012. Lysaker, FNI, 2012, 105 p.
Ydersbond, Inga Margrete,
Multi-level lobbying in
the EU: The case of the Renewables Directive and the German energy
industry. FNI Report 10/2012. Lysaker, FNI, 2012, 109 p.
Research Council of Norway
|Recent media coverage
'Building a Global Carbon
Market', International Innovation, 01.12.2012.