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The EU Energy and Climate Package: Causes, Content and Consequences (ECPack)

In 2007, the European Council decided to reduce EU GHG emissions by 20% of the 1990 level by 2020. The key challenge for the EU is now to adopt and implement effective policies and measures capable of attaining this goal. EU goals and policies will have significant consequences for Norway affiliated through the EEA-agreement.

In December 2008, the EU acted upon this challenge by adopting the energy and climate package compromise, combining significantly different energy-economic interests by mandatory policies covering different sectors. The package represents a fundamentally new approach to collective EU decision-making and implementation, based as it is on thorough economic impact assessment. Further development and implementation of the package will, however, also depend significantly on political factors: how has the EU been able to balance the need for an ambitious package with legitimacy based on acceptance among public and private actors? This question is crucial for the future implementation of the package compromise, and is the background for this project proposal.

The EU energy and climate package compromise is not carved in stone. Changes have already been announced as a response to the possibility of an adequate international climate agreement. The package also contains elements that are still being negotiated and likely to change regardless of international developments. This obviously could have repercussions for the package compromise and for what goals and measures member states and Norway will eventually have to implement. The project will provide knowledge on how Norway is affected by the evolving package and lessons from implementation in Norway and other countries that are part of or immediately surrounding the Nordic energy market area, a crucial background factor for Norwegian energy and climate policies.

The project is divided in three parts: analysis of the 2008 package compromise; analysis of changes in the EU energy and climate package compromise after 2008; and implementation of the package in Norway and different member states.

Project leader: Jon Birger Skjærseth

Project period: 2010-2014


Jevnaker, Torbjørg, 'Pushing administrative EU integration: the path towards European network codes for electricity'. Journal of European Public Policy, Vol 22, No 7, 2015 pp. 927-947.

Eikeland, Per Ove, Implementing the EU 2020 Energy and Climate Package in Germany: Green Champion Struggling to Adapt. FNI Report 9/2014. Lysaker, FNI, 2014, 101 p.

Jevnaker, Torbjørg, Norway’s implementation of the EU climate and energy package: Europeanization or cherry-picking? FNI Report 7/2014. Lysaker, FNI, 2014, 85 p.

Gulbrandsen, Lars H. and Jon Birger Skjærseth, Implementing the EU 2020 Climate and Energy Package in the Netherlands: Mixed Instruments, Mixed Results. FNI Report 10/2014. Lysaker, FNI, 2014, 46 p.

Jevnaker, Torbjørg, 'Klimatåke, ikke klimamål' ('Climate Fog, not Climate Targets'), Dagens Næringsliv, 08.12.2014. In Norwegian.

Skjærseth, Jon Birger, Implementing EU Climate and Energy Policies in Poland: From Europeanization to Polonization? FNI Report 8/2014. Lysaker, FNI, 2014, 57 p.

Skjærseth, Jon Birger, 'Polsk bremsekloss' ('Polish Curb to EU Climate Policies'), Energi og Klima, 10.10.2014. In Norwegian.

Gulbrandsen, Lars H. and Anne Raaum Christensen. 'EU Legislation to Reduce Carbon Emissions from Cars: Intergovernmental or Supranational Policy-Making?' Review of Policy Research, Vol 31, No 6, 2014, pp. 503-528

Skjærseth, Jon Birger, 'Linking EU Climate and Energy Policies: Policy-making, Implementation and Reform'. International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics, published online 02.10.2014, 17 p. DOI: 10.1007/s10784-014-9262-5

Skjærseth, Jon Birger, 'Polen bremser' ('Poland Curbs EU Climate Ambitions), Dagens Næringsliv, 23.06.2014. In Norwegian.

Skjærseth, Jon Birger, 'EU Emissions Trading: Acievements, Challenges, Solutions'. In Cherry, T.L., J. Hovi and D.M. McEvoy (eds), Toward a New Climate Agreement: Conflict, Resolution and Governance. London, Routledge, 2014, pp. 254-264.

Ydersbond, Inga Margrete, 'Multilevel ‘venue shopping’: The case of EU’s Renewables Directive'. Interest Groups & Advocacy, Vol 3, No 1, 2014, pp. 30-58.

Skjærseth, Jon Birger and Per Ove Eikeland, 'EUs kvotesystem – verdt å redde?' ('EU ETS – Worth Rescuring?'), Dagens Næringsliv, 04.01.2014. In Norwegian.

Eikeland, Per Ove, 'Giganter på leirføtter?' ('Giants on Clay Feet?'), Dagens Næringsliv, 05.12.2013. In Norwegian.

Gulbrandsen, Lars H., 'Tysk klimabrems' ('Germany Puts on the Climate Brakes'), Dagens Næringsliv, 13.09.2013. In Norwegian.

Skjærseth, Jon Birger, Unpacking the EU Climate and Energy Package: Causes, Content, Consequences. FNI Report 2/2013. Lysaker, FNI, 2013, 50 p.

Jevnaker, Torbjørg, 'Fornybar energi krever større markeder' ('Renewable Energy Requires Larger Markets'), Klima, 11.02.2013. In Norwegian.

Jevnaker, Torbjørg, 'Strømlov mot strømmen' ('Electricity Legislation Against the Current'), Masterbloggen, 17.01.2013. In Norwegian.

Christensen, Anne Raaum and Lars H. Gulbrandsen, EU Policies on Car Emissions and Fuel Quality: Reducing the Climate Impact from Road Transport. FNI Report 14/2012. Lysaker, FNI, 2012, 66 p.

Eikeland, Per Ove, EU Energy Policy Integration - Stakeholders, Institutions and Issue-linkages. FNI Report 13/2012. Lysaker, FNI, 2012, 139 p.

Skjærseth, Jon Birger, 'Governance by EU Emissions Trading: Resistance or Innovation in the Oil Industry?'. International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics, Vol 13, No 1, 2013, pp. 31-48.

Jevnaker, Torbjørg, An Electric Mandate: The EU procedure for harmonising cross-border network codes for electricity. FNI Report 18/2012. Lysaker, FNI, 2012, 105 p.

Ydersbond, Inga Margrete, Multi-level lobbying in the EU: The case of the Renewables Directive and the German energy industry. FNI Report 10/2012. Lysaker, FNI, 2012, 109 p.
 Related focal points of research:

   European energy and environmental politics
   Climate change

Project funding:

   Research Council of Norway (RENERGI Programme)

 External cooperation partners:

   University of Ottawa
   Stockholm Environment Institute
   University of Oslo

 Recent media coverage

'– Dette blir et tidsskille i norsk klimapolitikk' ('- This will be a watershed for Norwegian climate politics'), Sysla Grønn, 18.07.2016. In Norwegian.

'Kollaps i kvotemarkedet' ('Collaps in the Quota Market'), Dagens Næringsliv, 04.05.2015. In Norwegian.

"Polonizacja" unijnej polityki energetyczno-klimatycznej? ('"Polonization" of EU Energy and Climate Policies?'), Teraz Srodowisko, 13.01.2015. In Polish.

'I skjebnefellesskap med Russland' ('The Ukrainian Crisis and Gas: Norway Shares Fate with Russia'), Energi og Klima, 11.04.2014. In Norwegian.

'Usikker skjebne for EUs 2030-forslag' ('Uncertain Outcome for EU's 2030 Proposal'), Energi og Klima, 19.02.2014. In Norwegian.

'EU i klimaskvis' ('EU's Climate Squeeze'), Ukeavisen Ledelse, 14.02.2014. In Norwegian.

'Forsker: Utslippsmål for biler blir nådd i 2020 tross tysk lobbymakt' ('Researcher: Emission Targets for Cars Will Be Met in 2020 Despite German Lobby Power'), Energi og Klima, 13.12.2013. In Norwegian.

'CO2-krav til biler er storpolitisk EU-thriller' ('CO2 Requirements for Cars Are a High-Level EU Thriller'), Energi og Klima, 16.10.2013. In Norwegian.

'Transport: Humpete vei mot CO2-kutt ' ('Transport: A Bumpy Road Towards CO2 Cuts'), Energi og Klima, 21.06.2013. In Norwegian.

'Building a Global Carbon Market', International Innovation, 01.12.2012.

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