| FNI PROJECTS
Norwegian Biodiversity Policy in the Interface between
European Legislation and Multilateral Environmental Treaties: the Seed
The Norwegian Nature Diversity Act stipulates that
genetic diversity within domesticated species is to be managed so as to
contribute to ensuring the resource foundation for the future, reflecting
Norway's commitments under the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and the
International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture
However, the European Economic Area (EEA) Agreement may
complicate realization: EU regulations on variety release, seed marketing and
conservation varieties prohibit the distribution of seeds among farmers,
allowing only the marketing of seeds of varieties from authorized seed shops
that comply with strict criteria. This seriously limits farmers' possibilities
to conserve and sustainably use crop genetic diversity.
has chosen a less restrictive path, there is still a long way to go before the
inconsistencies are resolved and Norwegian policy can promote the conservation
and sustainable use of crop genetic resources. The project is designed to
identify the actions and regulations required to resolve existing
inconsistencies. Matches and mismatches between EU directives, CBD and ITPGRFA
will be identified, and the findings explained by analysing driving forces,
interests, power sources, and strategies.
We apply a theoretical
framework that includes instrumental, structural and discursive power concepts.
The effects on regulations and management practice in Norway are assessed.
Finally, we identify the room of manoeuvre for Norway, and options for the
The project builds mainly on political science and law, with some
input from plant sciences.
Leif Christian Jensen
'Norways Path to Ensuring
Farmers Rights in the European Context'. In Andersen, Regine and Tone
Winge (eds), Realising Farmers' Rights to Crop Genetic Resources: Success
Stories and Best Practices. Abingdon (UK), Routledge, 2013, pp.
Winge, Tone and Helen Groome,
'Conservation of Local Varieties
in the Basque Country in Spite of Legal Restrictions'. In Andersen, Regine
and Tone Winge (eds), Realising Farmers' Rights to Crop Genetic Resources:
Success Stories and Best Practices. Abingdon (UK), Routledge, 2013, pp.
Plant Genetic Diversity in
Agriculture and Farmers Rights in Norway. FNI Report 17/2012.
Lysaker, FNI, 2012, 119 p.
A Guide to EU
Legislation on the Marketing of Seed and Plant Propagating Material in the
Context of Agricultural Biodiversity. FNI Report 11/2012. Lysaker, FNI,
2012, 85 p.
'The Plant Treaty - Crop Genetic
Diversity and Food Security'. In Steinar Andresen, Elin Lerum Boasson and
Geir Hønneland (eds), International Environmental Agreements: An
Introduction. London/New York, Routledge, 2012, pp.
Plantemangfold i jordbruket
og bønders rettigheter i Norge ('Plant Genetic Diversity and
Farmers Rights in Norway'). FNI Report 11/2011. Lysaker, FNI,
2011, 116 p. In Norwegian.
Research Council of Norway