| FNI PROJECTS
Pathways to Sustainability: Policy Instruments and
It is today well documented that there
is a considerable, and in some respects widening, gap between policy targets or
intentions and actual results in the environmental domain. There are at least
three possible explanations for this 'puzzle'. Firstly, what is often denoted
as 'policy failure', meaning that policy- and decision-makers fail to adopt
(appropriate) policy instruments. Secondly, 'implementation failure', meaning
that the instruments are not being implemented forcefully. Thirdly, a mismatch
between the instrument implemented and the context in which it is applied. In
this project, we are mainly concerned with two the latter explanations. Hence,
the objective of the current project is to examine the effectiveness of
different policy instruments by way of comparative empirical research. More
specifically, the project aims to assess the impact of different policy
instruments on technological and industrial change. For this purpose, the
project employs an analytical framework that combines theories from the areas
of public policy and instrument choice and technological change. Moreover, the
project proposes five empirical cases studies that reflect the role of (i)
different types of policy instruments, (ii) different types of problem to be
solved, and (iii) different types of political and industrial context. The five
case studies are:
(1) Forest management in Norway and Sweden.
policy in the Dutch and Norwegian oil and gas production sectors.
management (electronics, plastic) in Norway.
(4) Air pollution from the oil
and gas sectors in Norway and the UK.
(5) Renewable energy in the form of
wind power in Norway and Denmark.
The project is part of the Research
Council of Norway's RAMBU
Project leader: Jon
Skjærseth, Jon Birger
and Atle Christer Christiansen, 'Environmental Policy Instruments and
Technological Change in the Energy Sector: Findings from Comparative Empirical
Research'. Energy & Environment, Vol 17 No 2, 2006, pp.
Skjærseth, Jon Birger,
Technological Change by Voluntary Agreements: Climate Policy and Dutch
Petroleum Production'.Climate Policy, Vol 5, No 4, 2005, pp.
Gulbrandsen, Lars H., 'Explaining Different
Approaches to Voluntary Standards: A Study of Forest Certification Choices in
Norway and Sweden', Journal of Environmental Policy and Planning,
Vol 7, No 1, 2005, pp. 43-59.
Skjærseth, Jon Birger and Atle
Christer Christiansen, 'Climate Change Policies in Norway and the Netherlands:
Different Instruments, Similar Outcome'. Energy & Environment, Vol
16, No 1, 2005, pp. 1-25.
Wettestad, Jørgen, 'Offshore Air
Pollution and Technological Fixes: A Norway-UK Comparison'. Energy and
Environment, Vol 15, No 5, 2004, pp. 779-805.
The Research Council of