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FNI PUBLICATION SUMMARIES

Global Governance and Sustainable Development



Fauchald, Ole Kristian,
'Hardening the legal softness of the World Bank through an Inspection Panel?'
Scandinavian Studies in Law, Vol 58, 2013, pp. 101-127.

The main purposes of this article are to study the normative characteristics of the Operational Policies and Procedures (OPPs) upon which the World Bank Inspection Panel (IP) bases its decisions, and to examine whether and how the IP has contributed to ‘hardening’ the legal characteristics of the Bank's OPPs. The latter task involves a critical examination of the view that the IP is to be regarded as a bottom-up accountability instrument essentially internal to the World Bank. My main underlying hypothesis is that the OPPs in combination with the IP have contributed to ‘harden’ the ‘soft’ characteristics of the World Bank. Such a process of hardening ‘soft law’ can be termed a process of ‘legalization’.



Kanie, Norichika, Steinar Andresen and Peter M. Haas (eds)
Improving Global Environmental Governance: Best Practices for Architecture and Agency
London/New York, Routledge, 2014, 265 p.
> For orders and more information, see Routledge's website

The point of departure for this book is that overall global environmental governance is not very effective, although there are strong variations across regimes. How can governance improve? This is discussed by looking at the role of key actors in various stages of the governance process. The actors focussed are states, ENGOs the scientific community, international organizations and industry as well as the spesific role played by parterships. The stages focussed are agenda setting, negotiations, compliance, implementation and resilience. Our point of departure is that various types of actor combinations have significance for how the process plays out in various phases. A few main conclusions are. First, International organizations have an important role in managing scientific networks in most stages. Second, states are still the key actors in the system and they are crucial in deciding whether governance is good or not. Thirds, linking environmental issues with outside issues and interests may pave the way for problem solving. The lessons learned were also applied to the climate regime, but this is such a malign political and intellectual issue that the chances of good governance here seems slim.



Haas, Peter M., Steinar Andresen and Norichika Kanie
'Introduction: Actor Configuration and Global Environmental Governance'
In Kanie, N., S. Andresen and P.M. Haas (eds), Improving Global Environmental Governance: Best Practices for Architecture and Agency. London/New York, Routledge, 2014, pp. 1-31.
> More information here

This introductory chapter introduces the theoretical approach applied in the book. The role of the following actors are presented and discussed: States, the scientific community, environmental organizatiois (ENGOS), international organizatios (IO)s and multinational corporations (MNC). The spesific role played by partnerships is also discussed. The focussed stages are: agenda setting, negotiations, compliance, implementation and resilience. A number of hypothesis are set our regarding various actor combinations in various stages. It is assumed that some combinations produce good governance while others do not. This is then discussed and applied in a number of international environmental regimes in the following chapters of the book.



Stokke, Olav Schram
'Actor Configurations and Compliance Tasks in International Environmental Governance'
In Kanie, N., S. Andresen and P.M. Haas (eds), Improving Global Environmental Governance: Best Practices for Architecture and Agency. London/New York, Routledge, 2014, pp. 83-107.
> More information here

What lessons learned about the design of compliance systems in other fields of international environmental governance can be applied to the area of climate change? This chapter argues that best-practice compliance systems can create and expand transnational enforcement networks, reinforce domestic compliance constituencies, and expand the number and categories of actors capable of sounding the non-compliance alarm. Enforcer networks are particularly potent if accompanied by access procedures that allow participation by environmental and industry organizations interested in providing additional compliance information about state or target-group adherence to international commitments. Similarly, domestic compliance constituencies in laggard states are more likely to improve rule adherence if they involve not only environmental agencies and green organizations but also target groups that play by the rules, alongside representatives from sector agencies that recognize that regime-based capacity enhancement may imply material benefits. Also brought out in this chapter is the need to consider individual international regimes within the larger complexes of institutions or governance architectures that affect the issue-area in focus.



Kanie, Norichika, Peter M. Haas and Steinar Andresen
'Conclusion: Lessons from Pluralistic Governance'
In Kanie, N., S. Andresen and P.M. Haas (eds), Improving Global Environmental Governance: Best Practices for Architecture and Agency. London/New York, Routledge, 2014, pp. 196-220.
> More information here

This chapter sets out to summarize and discuss the findings from the empirical cases in light of the theoretical framework set out in chapter 1 on actor configurations in various governance stages. We first go through the lessons learned from all the stages discussed and then look at the issue of the dynamics of actor configuration, linkages between components and networks and configuration of actor groups. A few general observations can be made. IOs have an important role in managing scientific networks and linking them up with the inter-governmental processes. More importantly, states are still the main players in the game, most decisive for what comes out of these processes. Third, appropriate actor configuration is indespenisble for the best practice to be achieved. We also provide some more optimistic speculationsn as to how the gridlock on climate governance can be escaped.



Kanie, Norichika, Peter M. Haas, Steinar Andresen, Graeme Auld, Benjamin Cashore, Pamela S. Chasek, Jose A. Puppim de Oliveira, Stefan Renckens, Olav Schram Stokke, Casey Stevens, Stacy D. VanDeveer and Masahiko Iguchi
'Green Pluralism: Lessons for Improved Environmental Governance in the 21st Century'
Environment, Vol 55, No 5, 2013, pp. 14-30.
> Purchase original article here.

This article presents findings from a multinational research project that identified some of the best and worst practices in international and transnational environmental cooperation, in terms of configuration of actors in the performance of various governance components: agenda setting, negotiated settlement, compliance, implementation and resilience. The cases span a variety of differ¬ent environmental challenges and were selected based on their importance for addressing questions about the actors engaged in each particular project.



McNeill, Desmond, Steinar Andresen and Kristin Sandberg
'The Global Politics of Health: Actors and Initatives'
In Roaldkvam, S., D McNeill and S Blume (eds), Protecting the World's Children: Immunisation Policies and Practices. Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2013, pp. 59-97
> More information here

Over the last two decades the influence of new global initaives and actors has increased strongly. When it coimes to immunisation this especially applies to the Global Alliance for Vaccination and Immunisation (GAVI). This development has been a mixed blessing. On the positive side they bring increased attention and substantial and new resources leading to significant benefits for millions. Thanks to GAVI world leaders, powerful decision-makers and the public at large have become aware of the significant benefirs of vaccination. GAVI has also brought more coordinated action at the global level. It is more probblematic that this may have contributed to the weakening of the WHO. The same goes for the increased emphasis on economics as the basis for priority setting and gaining political support for health initaitves. Still, although it has come to dominate, money is not the only source of authority. Experise is another. Althoughj it is mostly exercised at the global level, it can be more easily challenged, at least where counter expertise is present.



Thune, Henrik and Leiv Lunde
Hva Norge kan være i verden ('What Norway Can Be in the World')
Oslo, Cappelen Damm, 2013, 192 p. In Norwegian.
> More information about the book

The book sets out to discuss Norwegian foreign policy in the light of globalization and geopolitical change. A main premise is that foreign policy is far more important to an open and often vulnerable economy than is generally perceived. More and more aspect of domestic policy is influenced by globalization and other countries’ policies and actions, and domestic Norwegian policy is also impacting significantly on policies towards other countries. The book then goes on to discuss the significant power shifts happening today and in the coming years, not least with Asia rise and the relative (but stubborn) decline of the US. Moving closer to the Norwegian foreign policy arena, the authors debunk a range of myths about Norway’s foreign policy, and then aims to convey where Norway’s comparative strengths as a foreign policy player lie. In the final part of the book, ten recommendations for the next Norwegian government are put forward (the book was published right before Norwegian Parliamentary elections in 2013).



Bade, Heidi
Aid in a Rush. A Case Study of the Norway-Guyana REDD+ Partnership
FNI Report 4/2013. Lysaker, FNI, 2013, 82 p.
> Download full-text version (PDF)

As part of the Norwegian International Climate and Forest Initiative (NICFI), Norway chose the small, Latin-American country Guyana as bilateral REDD+ partner. The partnership is both surprising and groundbreaking, given that Guyana is a country where Norway has minimal presence and projects. This report asks the question why Norway chose Guyana as partner country despite minimal experience and high levels of risks by employing a Foreign Policy Analysis framework. This framework allows for identifying key actors meanwhile demonstrating how International, Domestic and Governmental factors play into the reasoning behind such a decision. The decision-making process was marked by little time and disagreements between the two responsible ministries dealing with the initiative. Although the partnership is being funded by the aid budget, this case shows that climate political priorities trumped foreign aid considerations. The report contributes to an ongoing debate in the field of foreign aid, namely whether spending aid allocations on payments for ecosystem services is a new practice that should be maintained.



Lunde, Leiv and Iselin Stensdal
'Norsk ressurs- og miljøpolitikk mot 2030: Landing i Kina eller på månen?' ('Norwegian Resource and Environmental Policies Towards 2030: Landing in China or on the Moon?')
In Odd Mølster og Åsmund Weltzien (eds), Norge og det nye verdenskartet. Oslo, Cappelen Damm, 2013, pp. 80-105. In Norwegian.
> More information about the book here

Which world resource and environmental pollution scenarios are plausible in 2030? What are the implications for Norwegian policies? The authors have determined consumption and production of energy, as well as climate change as the most crucial aspects for Norway’s future. Despite difficulties in predicting the future, it is fairly certain that new economies, and in particular China will impact on the energy and climate change domains. Should Norway continue to pursue a fossil dependence, or will it have to find other means to sustain its future? Political visibility can be secured through promoting Norway’s role as an environmental fore-runner, both in terms of oil extraction and in clean energy. Putting funds in science and technology development and creation of a climate friendly energy fund are advised strategies.



Skedsmo, Pål Wilter, Heidi Bade and Leiv Lunde
Doing Good by Doing Well? Statoil in Sub-Saharan Africa
Occasional Paper 2/2013. Oslo, Norwegian Church Aid, 2013, 30 p.
> Download report

This report, commissioned by Norwegian Church Aid, examines Statoil’s exploration and production activities in Sub-Saharan Africa, in particular how Statoil understands and acts in order to develop its social license to operate. This is assessed along three main avenues: (1) how Statoil understands its wider role and impact in the societies where it operates; (2) how Statoil develops this by means of its Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) practices; and (3) how much revenues Statoil generates to the benefit of the countries in question. The focus is on three countries where Statoil is an important actor, or is positioning itself to become one: Angola, Mozambique and Tanzania. What is Statoil’s footprint in these countries?



Andresen, Steinar
'International Regime Effectiveness'
In R. Falkner (ed), The Handbook of Global Climate and Environment Policy, Oxford, Wiley-Blackwell, 2013, pp. 304-320
> More information here

The effectivness of international environmental regimes have been studied for two decades now and considerable advancements have been made both in terms of how to measure performance and how to explain performance. There is agreement on how to measure effectiveness but a wide variety of perspectives exist regarding how it shall be explained. But there is agreement that both regime attributes as well as non-institutional factors matter. Still, it is argued here that it is exceedingly difficult to decide exactly how effective regime are, exemplified by a brief analaysis of the climate regime. Empirical studies on effectiveness peaked in the 1990s but little has been done in this millenium. More update empirical reserach is therefore needed, but the scope needs to be wider than the traditional problem solving effectiveness persective.



Auld, Graeme and Lars H. Gulbrandsen
'Private Regulation in Global Environmental Governance'
In R. Falkner (ed), The Handbook of Global Climate and Environment Policy, Oxford, Wiley-Blackwell, 2013, pp. 394-411
> More information here

In recent years, private regulations—instances where non-state actors set rules to govern behavior—have emerged as a vibrant source of global environmental governance. With a particular focus on forest, fisheries and agricultural certification programs, this chapter discusses demand and supply factors contributing to the emergence of private regulatory programs, the evolution of these initiatives, and consequences for problem amelioration. Taking the insights from these lead sectors, we review the private regulatory activities on climate change, drawing parallels and noting differences that emerge.



Andresen, Steinar
'Leadership and Climate Talks: Historical Lessons in Agenda Setting'
In G. Sjöstedt and A.M. Penetrante (eds), Climate Change Negotiations A Guide to Resolving Disputes and Facilitating Multilateral Cooperation, London/New York, Earthscan, 2013, pp. 148-169
> More information about the book here

Leadership floruished in the agenda setting stage and there was plenty of room for individual instumental and intellectual leadsership in the absence of states on the scene. In the later stages of agenda setting small 'green' states also entered the scene, but opponents to strong action was also about to get organized. Available evidence suggest that traditional state bargaining was prominent through the stage of negotiation before the adoption of the Kyoto Protocol. Still effective instrumental leadership by key officials was also conducted, but interaction with the important state players was necessary. Overall, due to the very malign nature of this issue area, leadership has been faily modest and its significance has often been quite short-lived.



Korppoo, Anna,
'Does Doha’s Decision Treat Transition Economies Unequally?'
Climate Policy, Vol 13, No 3, 2013, pp. 403-407.
> Purchase original article here.

Doha Amendment allows surplus AAUs to be carried over from the first commitment period but limits their use for offsetting emission growth beyond commitment levels. Amendment 7ter simultaneously ‘shaves’ AAU allocation to level equivalent of the average 2008-2010 emissions for countries which pledged a growth target under the second commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol. In sum this means that economies in transition (EITs) are not allocated headroom for growth, and makes their commitments starkly different from their original pledges. The bubble arrangement of the EU adds uncertainty to whether member states avoid the ‘shaving’ of 7ter due to their pooled target. This would put Annex I EITs into unequal position as a result of the Doha Amendment.



Gulbrandsen, Lars H.,
'Dynamic Governance Interactions: Evolutionary Effects of State Responses to Non-State Certification Programs'
Regulation & Governance, published online 20.12.2012. In print: Vol 8, No 1, 2014, pp. 74-92.
> Access original article here.

Research has recognized that states enable or constrain private governance initiatives, but we still know too little about the interactions between private and public authority in the governance of various social and environmental problems. This article examines how states have responded to the emergence of forest and fisheries certification programs, and how state responses have influenced the subsequent development of these programs. It is argued that historical and structural differences in the management of forest and fisheries have resulted in divergent state responses to certification programs, but that both trajectories of interaction have led to a strengthening of the non-state program. The article draws upon these cases to inductively identify types of interaction between state policies and non-state certification program, the causal mechanisms that shed light on interaction dynamics, and the conditions under which state involvement is likely to result in either strengthening or weakening of non-state programs.



Andresen, Steinar, G. Kristin Rosendal and Jon Birger Skjærseth
'Why Negotiate a Legally Binding Mercury Convention?'
International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics, published online 27.11.2012. 16 p.
> Purchase original article here or download post-print version here.

The purpose of this paper is to explain how and why consensus was reached on a legally binding approach given the opposition of powerful actors. Why did the US and key emerging economies change their positions? We apply tools from the regime formation literature - classical perspectives on power, interests and knowledge, and the use of different leadership tools to shed light on the issue. Knowledge-based intellectual leadership was exercised by the UNEP Secretariat, providing new information on the seriousness and scope of the problem. Power-based leadership through unilateral action was provided by the US. When the US changed position after change in domestic leadership, political costs increased for other opponents. Finally, interest-based instrumental leadership was provided by many proponents, with UNEP and among others the EU in the lead. Still, conflicts remain on control measures and the form of financial mechanism.



Stokke, Olav Schram
Disaggregating International Regimes: A New Approach to Evaluation and Comparison
Cambridge (USA), MIT Press, 2012, 348 p.
> For orders and more information, see MIT Press' website
> Related FNI News article

Evaluating the effectiveness of international regimes presents challenges that are both general and specific. What are the best methodologies for assessment within a governance area and do they enable comparison across areas? In this book, Olav Schram Stokke connects the general to the specific, developing new tools for assessing international regime effectiveness and then applying them to a particular case, governance of the Barents Sea fisheries. Stokke’s innovative disaggregate methodology makes cross-comparison possible by breaking down the problem and the relevant empirical evidence.

Stokke employs fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis, and his approach is disaggregate in three ways: it separates the specific governance problem into its cognitional, regulatory, and behavioral components; it splits into three the counterfactual analysis of what the outcome would have been if the regime had not existed; and it decomposes the empirical evidence to maximize the number of observations. By applying this methodology to a regional resource regime known as one of the world’s most successful, Stokke bridges the gap between the intensive case study analyses that have dominated the field and increasingly ambitious efforts to devise quantitative methods for examining the causal impacts of regimes. Stokke’s analysis sheds light on the implementation and the interaction of international institutions, with policy implications of regime design and operation.



Bauer, Steffen, Steinar Andresen and Frank Biermann
'International Bureaucracies'
In F. Biermann and P. Pattberg (eds), Global Environmental Governance Reconsidered, Cambridge (USA), MIT Press, 2012, pp. 27-45
> More information about the book here

Our reserach contributes, in particular, by conceptualizing international bureaucracies as autonomous actors that need to be distinguised from international organizations. Our work traces empirical manifestation of their influence, which can be found in cognitive, normative and executive dimensions of global governance. We also provide explanations for the influences as well as variations in influence across different types of international bureaucracies. Findings highlight the significance of internal factors such as organizational culture, expertise and leadership as well as the problem structure within which bureaucracies operate. By contrast, institutional design bear limited explanatory power. Still, the knowledge of international bureaucracies is hardly sufficient. For example, the causal relationship between the actions of the executive top and the external influence of international bureaucracies remains poorly undrestood. Therefore more comparative and systematic empirical studies will help test furteher hypotesis about the general conditions of bureaucratic influence.



Gupta, Arti, Steinar Andresen, Bernd Siebenhuner and Frank Biermann
'Science Networks'
In F. Biermann and P. Pattberg (eds), Global Environmental Governance Reconsidered, Cambridge (USA), MIT Press, 2012, pp. 69-95
> More information about the book here

Scientific input is most ardently sought in precisely those areas characterized by the most severe scientific and institutional uncretainty and lack of trus, where consensual science is hardest to achieve. Scientific consensus is more likely to follow after resolution of political conflicts in such issue areas. The chapter emphasizes that that science is only one ingredient in effcetive, legitimate and democratic global environmental governance. The three issue areas discussed are climate change, whaling and GMOs. They are all charcterized by a wide range of moral, social, political and economic conflicts and priorities. Our analysis suggests that the influence of science in such areas will depend on the evolution of global institutions and processes that can confer legitimacy on the generation and content of policy-relevant science for decision-makers. Ulimately 'good' science for policy-making reqiuires good plolitics. How to harness such good politics remains a frontier reserach question linking analysis of scientific influence to broader normative and institutional questions relating to global governance.



Gulbrandsen, Lars H.
'Impacts of Nonstate Governance: Lessons from the Certification of Marine Fisheries'
In P. Dauvergne (ed), Handbook of Global Environmental Politics, 2nd edition. Cheltenham (UK)/Northampton (USA), Edward Elgar, 2012, pp. 330-340.
> More information about the book here

Over the past two decades, a number of multistakeholder certification schemes have emerged and become particularly vibrant sources of nonstate governance. We know a great deal about the conditions that help to explain how these certification programs emerged and evolved within and across sectors, but much less about their direct effects and broader consequences. Using the Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) as a case study, this chapter examines how we can evaluate the effectiveness of nonstate certification programs and discusses what certification in the fisheries sector has taught us.



Andresen, Steinar
'Do We Need More Global Sustainability Conferences?'
In P. Dauvergne (ed), Handbook of Global Environmental Politics, 2nd edition. Cheltenham (UK)/Northampton (USA), Edward Elgar, 2012, pp. 87-97.
> More information about the book here

It is argued that there is no longer any need for these conferences as their main function is agenda setting, useful in the last millenium but not anymore. We know what the problems are so instead we need spscific implementation of the already many agreed upon ambitious UN goals. The Stocholm Conference was a water-shed event as it placed environment on the international agenda. The Rio Summit surpassed Stocholm by far in terms of process and ambition, but failed to deliver on key promises. The 2002 WSSD was by most standards a rather weak and irrelevant event. Based on the preparations to Rio+20, expectations should be low. The process is characterized by deep cleavages between North and South and ideological grand-standing as well as repetition of well knows positions. The concept of green economy is disputed and the call for institutional reform is stalled. Rather than investing scarce human and finacial resources in such conferences we should instead establish a small low-cost expert committee of top diplomats and reserachers to find out what is politically feasible in terms of moving the world in a more sustainable direction.



Biermann, F., K. Abbott, S. Andresen et al.
'Navigating the Anthropocene: Improving Earth System Governance'
Science, Vol 335, 16.03.2012, pp. 1306-1307.
> Access article

Human societies must now change course and steer away from critical tipping points in the Eatrh System that may lead to irreversible change. The article suggests that a fundamental reorientation of national and international institutions towrads effective Earth Sytem Governance is needed. Seven building blocks are sugeested torwardrs that end. This is based on a comprehensive assessment conducted in 2011 by the Earth System Governance Project. This is a social science research project under the auspices of the International Human Dimensions Programme on Global Environmental Change (IHDP). The seven building blocks are: 1) Upgrading UNEP to a specialized agency; 2) Strengthen the integration of sustainable development from the local to the global level. The establishment of a high-level UN Sustainable Development Council is suggested to realize this goal. The CSD should be closed down. The G-20 should have at least 50% of the votes in such a council; 3) Better institutional arrangement for technology development; 4) Place stronger emphasis on planetary concerns in economic governance; 5) Stronger reliance on qualified majority voting to speed up international norm-setting; 6) More emphasis on legitimacy and accountability; 7) Equity and fairness should be at the heart of an institutional framework for sustaiinable development. The 2012 Rio Confernce offers opportunities to test the political will to deal with these issues.



Fauchald, Ole Kristian
'Effective Access to Environmental Information in Norway?'
In I.L. Backer, O.K. Fauchald and C. Voigt (eds), Pro Natura - Festskrift til Hans Christian Bugge. Oslo, Universitetsforlaget, 2012, pp. 170-188.
> More information about the book here
> Download the chapter here

The article discusses Norwegian ministries’ commitment to effective implementation of the Environmental Information Act in light of the Aarhus Convention on Access to Information, Public Participation in Decision-making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters, 1998. It addresses the concept of «environmental information» as set out in section 2 of the Act and in article 2(3) of the Aarhus Convention with a particular focus on information that has been issued in the form of «legal advice», as well as problems of differences in opinion among private parties and public authorities regarding the scope of information sought. The second main element of the article concerns the effectiveness of relevant remedies in Norway in light of article 9(1) and (4) of the Aarhus Convention.



Faid, Miriam
Tackling Cross-Sectoral Challenges to Advance Health as Part of Foreign Policy
FNI Report 2/2012. Lysaker, FNI, 2012, 39 p.
> Download full-text version (PDF)

This report is based on the general assumption that the integration of global health into foreign policy-making is beneficial for advancing global health goals. This is based on the statement laid down in the 2007 Oslo Declaration. This view is also reflected in various relevant UN Declarations. Using an exploratory comparative approach the report drraws empirical lessons from three global issues, selectede on the basis of their similarities to global health: Environment as regards climate change and biodiversity and their integration into global trade governance; migration and its integration into global security governance and gender and its integration into global development governance. Issue linkage and mainstrreaming were used as analytical devices.From the documentation provided policy lessons on how to advance health as foreign policy is 1) Government actors need to build greater capacity for managing complex governance strucures. 2) New policy concepts require new substance that can help generate concrete action and changed practices.Finally, the report suggests new points of analytical entry for further research on global health and foreign policy.



Andresen, Steinar and G. Kristin Rosendal
The Global Environment Facility (GEF): Right Mechanism for Improved Implementation?
FNI Report 4/2012. Lysaker, FNI, 2012, 22 p.
> Download full-text version (PDF)

The purpose is to feed into the international discussions of environmental financial mechanisms such as for forestry and mercury by examining the performance of the GEF. We discuss performance against effectiveness and legitimacy and focus on institutional set-up and key actors as explanatory factors. Methodologically, we use document and literature analysis and interviews with key actors in organizations, state representatives and NGOs. The dominant position of the USA and the World Bank has probably contributed to the bias towards a northern environmental agenda and emphasis on effectiveness and climate change projects. The GEF has somewhat predictably diverted the flow of international money from the poorest countries to more rapidly developing countries. Still, despite turf battles between the organizations involved, the broad organisational and thematic composition of the GEF has comparative advantages. This enhances the score on legitimacy especially for biodiversity projects, although they receive less overall funding. The GEF may be seen as an indication of how, regardless of choosing established or new institutions, basic power structures and interests of dominating parties will be largely decisive for what can be achieved in global environmental governance.



Fauchald, Ole Kristian
International Environmental Governance: Lessons Learned from Human Rights Institutional Reform
FNI Report 14/2011. Lysaker, FNI, 2011, 76 p.
> Download full-text version (PDF)

This report focuses on the possibility of establishing a High Commissioner for the Environment and transforming the UNEP Governing Council into a Council for the Environment. For this purpose, it considers the parallels between human rights regimes and environmental regimes. It provides a short-list of functions to be covered by a reformed environmental governance regime, and discusses how the reform can be coordinated with UNEP, as well as with the current and future institutional framework for sustainable development. The report also discusses how the reform can be related to fifteen core multilateral environmental agreements. Finally, the report considers how the reform can be carried out through a discussion of five separate options: a decision by the UN General Assembly, by the ECOSOC, or by the UNEP Governing Council, as well as through agreements between conferences of parties of environmental agreements, or directly between states. A main purpose of the report, which has been commissioned by the Norwegian Ministry for the Environment, is to provide input to the preparations for the Rio+20 Conference in 2012.



Andresen, Steinar, Elin Lerum Boasson and Geir Hønneland (eds)
International Environmental Agreements: An Introduction
London/New York, Routledge, 2012, 216 p.
> For orders and more information, see Routledge's website
> See related FNI news article
> See book review in International Environmental Agreements

International environmental agreements provide a practical basis for countries to address environmental issues on a global scale. This book explores the workings and outcomes of these agreements, and analyses key questions of why some problems are dealt with successfully and others ignored. By examining fundamental policies and issues in environmental protection this text gives an easily comprehensible introduction to international environmental agreements, and discusses problems in three areas: air, water and on land. It traces the history of agreements in broad thematic areas related to long-distance air pollution, ozone-depleting and greenhouse gases, ocean management, biological diversity, agricultural plant diversity and forest stewardship. Drawing on experts in their respective fields, this book provides an insightful evaluation of the successes and failures, and analysis of the reasons for this. Concluding with an insightful examination of research to show how performance of agreements can be improved in the future, this volume is a vital contribution to our understanding of the politics associated with establishing international environmental consensus.



Andresen, Steinar, Elin Lerum Boasson and Geir Hønneland
'An International Environmental Policy Takes Shape'
In Steinar Andresen, Elin Lerum Boasson and Geir Hønneland (eds), International Environmental Agreements: An Introduction. London/New York, Routledge, 2012, pp. 3-19.
> More information about the book at the publisher's website

International environmental problems have now been on the political agenda for more than thirty years. The traditional approach to deal with these problems is to establish multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs). There has been a tremendous growth in these agreements and several hundreds now exist. Although some of them have had a positive effect on the problem at hand, overall progress has been limited and existing environmental problems are formidable. This chapter elaborates on the concept of international environmental politics and on theoretical approaches to understanding it. This leads to an account of international cooperation on the environment, its origins and history.



Skjærseth, Jon Birger
'International Ozone Policies: Effective International Cooperation'
In Steinar Andresen, Elin Lerum Boasson and Geir Hønneland (eds), International Environmental Agreements: An Introduction. London/New York, Routledge, 2012, pp. 38-48.
> More information about the book at the publisher's website

This chapter looks at how scientists discovered the ozone problem and reduced uncertainty regarding the causes and effects of the depleting ozone layer. Against this backdrop, the study analyses how public authorities and the business community responded internationally to the challenge from the scientists. The analysis shows that the international effort under the Montreal Protocol was innovative in several ways, especially in the way developing countries were persuaded to join although the developed countries were mostly to blame in the first place. The result has been a sharp fall in the use and production of ozone-depleting substances.



Andresen, Steinar and Elin Lerum Boasson
'International Climate Cooperation: Clear Recommendations, Weak Commitments'
In Steinar Andresen, Elin Lerum Boasson and Geir Hønneland (eds), International Environmental Agreements: An Introduction. London/New York, Routledge, 2012, pp. 49-67.
> More information about the book at the publisher's website

It took a long time from the scientific discovery of the climate problem for it to be translated into international political action. However, progress was made with the political and scientific institutionalization of the process in the 1990s. The scientific process under the aegis of the IPCC has had significant cognitive impact. The normative effect of the Climate Convention has been less convincing. The Kyoto Protocol has had some effect in terms of sprurring various forms of actions, but emissions have still continued to rise as the Protocol in practise does not apply to many main emitters. The jury is still out on the effect of the bottom-up, 'pledge and review' approach codified in the Cancun Agreement. Why has substantial progress been so limited? The main reason is the 'malign' nature of the problem as it affects all countries economies and development paths in a major way. The problem-solving ability of the regime has also been hampered by fundamental disagreements on how to deal with the issue within the North as well as between the North and the South. If a long-term solution to the problem is to be found, technology is the key. The failure of global environmental diplomacy to deliver may also open up for other more exclusive soft-law approaches. If so, it is important that synregies are forged between the various approaches to avoid conflicts.



Andresen, Steinar, Elin Lerum Boasson and Geir Hønneland
'Ideals and Practice in International Environmental Politics'
In Steinar Andresen, Elin Lerum Boasson and Geir Hønneland (eds), International Environmental Agreements: An Introduction. London/New York, Routledge, 2012, pp. 173-191.
> More information about the book at the publisher's website

This chapter reviews the current status in the international environmental effort. The authors compare notes on the environmental challenges in air pollution, stewardship of the seas and nature conservation and biodiversity. What characterises the various multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs) - or regimes - within each of these major areas? What are their similarities and differences? How well do they perform and how can it be explained? To round off the authors discuss what can be done to strengthen international cooperation in the field of the environment and the possibilities of achieving this.



Oberthür, Sebastian and Olav Schram Stokke (eds)
Managing Institutional Complexity: Regime Interplay and Global Environmental Change.
Cambridge (USA), MIT Press, 2011, 353 p.
> For orders and more information, see MIT Press' website

Institutional interaction and complexity are crucial to environmental governance and are quickly becoming dominant themes in the international relations and environmental politics literatures. This book examines international institutional interplay and its consequences, focusing on two important issues: how states and other actors can manage institutional interaction to improve synergy and avoid disruption; and what forces drive the emergence and evolution of institutional complexes, sets of institutions that cogovern particular issue areas.

The book, a product of the Institutional Dimensions of Global Environmental Change research project (IDGEC), offers both theoretical and empirical perspectives. Chapters range from analytical overviews to case studies of institutional interaction, interplay management, and regime complexes in areas including climate change, fisheries management, and conservation of biodiversity. Contributors discuss such issues as the complicated management of fragmented multilateral institutions addressing climate change; the possible "chilling effect" on environmental standards from existing commitments; governance niches in Arctic resource protection; the relationships among treaties on conservation and use of plant genetic resources; causal factors in cross-case variation of regime prevalence; and the difficult relationship between the World Trade Organization and multilateral environmental agreements. The book offers a broad overview of research on interplay management and institutional complexes that provides important insights across the field of global environmental governance.



Stokke, Olav Schram and Sebastian Oberthür
'Introduction: Institutional Interaction in Global Environmental Change'
In Sebastian Oberthür and Olav Schram Stokke (eds), Managing Institutional Complexity: Regime Interplay and Global Environmental Change. Cambridge (USA), MIT Press, 2011, pp. 1-23.
> More information about the book at the publisher's website

Institutional interaction and complexity are crucial to environmental governance and are quickly becoming dominant themes in the international relations and environmental politics literatures. This chapter lays the conceptual foundations for the volume and provides an overview of its structure and contents. First we introduce four core concepts that provide the common basis for individual contributions and allow investigation of the two central themes of the volume. In this way we establish our understanding of international institutions, institutional interaction, interplay management, and institutional complexes. Thereafter we outline the structure of the book and offer a brief overview of the contents of each chapter.



Oberthür, Sebastian and Olav Schram Stokke
'Conclusions: Decentralized Interplay Management in an Evolving Interinstitutional Order'
In Sebastian Oberthür and Olav Schram Stokke (eds), Managing Institutional Complexity: Regime Interplay and Global Environmental Change. Cambridge (USA), MIT Press, 2011, pp. 313-341.
> More information about the book at the publisher's website

This book has focused on two themes central to institutional interaction: interplay management and institutional complexes. The contributions to this volume have addressed one or both of these issues by exploring various fields of international environmental governance, frequently investigating changes over time. The authors have focused on specific institutional complexes, the interplay management of particular inter-institutional relationships, or relevant cross-cutting issues. In this concluding chapter, we pinpoint the main conceptual and empirical findings concerning the two core themes.



Stokke, Olav Schram
'Internasjonale regimer' ('International Regimes')
In J. Hovi and R. Malnes (eds), Anarki, makt og normer. ('Anarchy, Power and Norms'). Oslo, Abstrakt Forlag, 2011, pp. 271-299. In Norwegian.
> More information about the book on the publisher's website

This chapter provides a bachelor-level introduction to international regimes, that is, substantive and procedural norms that guide behaviour in specific areas of international relations. Often contrasted with structural realism, regime analysis is part of the liberal tradition in the study of international affairs: institutions are potentially important vehicles for achieving cooperation among states that typically have some shared and some competing interests. Regime formation and maintenance can be explained in three complementary ways. Interest-based explanations highlight configurations of preferences; power-based models pinpoint material capabilities; whereas knowledge-based approaches consider how institutions may shape processes of defining national interest. An international regime is effective if contributing significantly to problem solving. Making ‘problem solving’ operational requires causal examination of whether regime outputs and domestic legal implementation affect relevant actor behavior – and whether that behavior significantly affects the state of the problem. Included here is evaluation of other factors that may also affect problem solving. Factors explaining variation in regime effectiveness include the nature of the problem that a regime addresses - some problems are easier to solve than others - and various aspects of regime design that may shape incentives, trigger learning, or strengthen the normative compellingness of institutions. The final part of the chapter discusses two rising topics in regime analysis: regime interplay and the roles of private organizations in the formation and operation of international regimes.



Andresen, Steinar and Tora Skodvin
'The Climate Regime: Achievements and Challenges'
In Davor Vidas and Peter Johan Schei (eds), The World Ocean in Globalisation. Leiden/Boston, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers/Brill, 2011, pp. 165-186.
> Download full-text version
> More information about the book at the publisher's website

This chapter describes and analyses the process of climate negotiations since they started more than 20 years ago. The goal of the chapter is threefold: to assess what has been achieved, explore main factors that have attributed to this outcome and to briefly discuss future developments. Three milestones are evaluated, the Climate Convention, the Kyoto Protocol and briefly, the Copenhagen Accord/Cancun Agreement. Effectiveness varies somewhat depending upon the measuring rod used. However, overall effectiveness is deemed to be rather modest. A main explanatory factor is the malign nature of the problem characterized by incongruity, asymmetries and deep-seated political and normative conflicts. An important explanatory factor is also the strong influence of the US through most of the process, playing the role as a laggard. The EU has been the most persistent pusher but has not been able to generate the critical mass of followers. More recently China and other emerging economies have become much more influential and this has not made progress easier. Considering the present political situation in the US, as well as the bleak economic outlook in key countries, the prospects for a strong follow up to the Kyoto Protocol seems bleak. As no binding agreement can be expected in the short-term, there is a need to also consider soft terms approaches through other established venues. It is important to have close link between various approaches to forge synergies and avoid conflicts. Considering expected projections in terms of economic growth and population increase in the South, the long-term perspectives also looks bleak unless some technological 'silver bullet' is discovered.



Inderberg, Tor Håkon and Svein Vigeland Rottem
Norsk utviklingssamarbeid og et klima i endring ('Norwegian Development Cooperation and Climate Change Financing')
FNI Report 7/2011. Lysaker, FNI, 2011, 22 p. In Norwegian.
> Download full-text version (PDF)
> Report also published as Utviklingspolitikk i møte med klimaendringene: Norges klimafinansiering ('Foreign Policy in Face of Climate Change: Norway's Climate Change Financing') by the Norwegian Church Aid.


The Report analyses challenges within development aid with the inclusion of climate financing in the Norwegian portfolio. The report starts by identifying central concepts and challenges that arise when funding of climate change projects are made part of a traditional development aid budget. Does the inclusion of climate considerations – mitigation and adaptation projects – within the Norwegian development aid budget alter the traditional development goals? Moreover, we ask to what degree the climate change funding can be regarded as “new and additional”, as committed in international climate negotiations. The analysis is based on interviews within the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of Environment, and the Norwegian Agency for Development Aid, as well as analysis of the official Norwegian development budgets from 2010 and 2011. It concludes that while mitigation financing, in particular REDD(+) can be said to be largely additional to traditional aid goals, it is difficult to assess the additionality for adaptation funding due to a lack of transparency.



Fauchald, Ole Kristian
Trade Rules and International Hazardous Substance Regulation: An Inventory Focusing on Chemicals and Waste
FNI Report 4/2011. Lysaker, FNI, 2011, 34 p.
> Download full-text version (PDF)

This report systematically explores the links between global regulation of hazardous substances and international trade rules. It offers an inventory covering the most relevant international regulation of hazardous substances, with a focus on hazardous chemicals and waste (the Basel Convention, the PIC Convention and the POPs Convention), and trade rules (the WTO Agreement). This report is part of the research project ‘Toxics Diplomacy and Trade: Norway in International Cooperation concerning Hazardous Substances and Trade’, and aims to identify issues that could become focal areas for the research project. The report identifies the following cases as being of particular interest to the project: (1) adding new chemicals to existing instruments; (2) implementation of existing instruments, with a focus on use of technical guidelines; (3) non-compliance mechanisms.



Andersen, Regine and Tone Winge
The 2010 Global Consultations on Farmers' Rights: Results from an Email-based Survey
FNI Report 2/2011. Lysaker, FNI, 2011, 161 p.
> Download full-text version (PDF)

This report presents the results of the e-mail based survey on Farmers’ Rights carried out in 2010 as part of the Global Consultations on Farmers’ Rights. The consultations were organized in response to Resolution 6/2009 of the Governing Body of the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture, which called for regional workshops on Farmers’ Rights. A total of 131 respondents from 36 countries participated. These were sorted into the groups ‘farmers’, ‘the public sector’, ‘seed industry’, ‘NGOs’ and ‘others’, as well as regional groups. Through the questionnaire the respondents shared their views and experiences on the realization of Farmers’ Rights, including achievements, obstacles and options. The prime concern among most participants was the need for guidance, support and capacity building to develop or adjust national legislation, policies, strategies and programs for the realization of Farmers’ Rights.



Andersen, Regine and Tone Winge, with contributions from Bell Batta Torheim
Global Consultations on Farmers’ Rights in 2010
FNI Report 1/2011. Lysaker, FNI, 2011, 131 p.
> Download full-text version (PDF)

This report presents the results and proceedings of the Global Consultations on Farmers’ Rights carried out in 2010. Consisting of both an e-mail based survey and an international consultation conference with regional components held in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, the consultations were organized as a response to Resolution 6/2009 of the Governing Body of the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture, which called for regional workshops on Farmers’ Rights. In the two phases of the consultations, a total of 177 experts and stakeholders from 46 countries in Africa, Asia, the Near East, Latin America and the Caribbean, North America and Europe, and from farmer organizations, government institutions, the seed industry, NGOs, IGOs, research institutions and other relevant groups participated. The participants shared their views and experiences and discussed obstacles and options to the realization of Farmers’ Rights. The consultation conference resulted in recommendations from the regional groups as well as joint recommendations from the conference. The prime concern among most participants is the need for guidance, support and capacity building to develop or adjust national legislation, policies, strategies and programs for the realization of Farmers’ Rights.



Gulbrandsen, Lars H., Steinar Andresen and Jon Birger Skjærseth
'Non-State Actors and Environmental Governance: Comparing Multinational, Supranational and Transnational Rule Making'
In Reinalda, Bob (ed), The Ashgate Research Companion to Non-State Actors. Aldershot, Ashgate, 2011, pp. 463-475.
> For orders and more information, see Ashgate's website

This book chapter examines the role and influence of non-state actors in global environmental politics. It draws on the theoretical framework of multilevel governance, emphasising the influence of non-state actors at various policy-making levels. Empirically, we assess and compare the following cases: multilateral environmental negotiations (the climate change negotiations and the International Whaling Commission – IWC), the EU Emissions Trading System (ETS), and social and environmental certification programs. The comparison across cases reveals that there is significant variation in both the role and influence of non-state actors in multilateral, EU-level and private governance programs. Careful attention to this variation is crucial for advancing our understanding of how and under what conditions non-state actors influence policy outcomes. We argue that the influence of non-state actors is closely related to the authority and competence of nation states. Moving from multinational to supranational and transnational rulemaking, the cases show a declining role of nation states and increasing role of non-state actors. Moreover, in all three cases, we see that because rulemaking is an ongoing and iterative process, the goal attainment and influence of various actor groups change over time.



Eakin, Hallie, Siri Eriksen, Per Ove Eikeland and Cecilie Øyen
'Public Sector Reform and Governance for Adaptation: Implications of New Public Management for Adaptive Capacity in Mexico and Norway'
Environmental Management, Vol 47, No 3, 2011, pp. 338-351.
> Download full-text article

Over the last several decades, countries around the globe have embraced variants of the philosophy of administration broadly called ‘‘New Public Management’’ (NPM) in an effort to improve administrative efficiencies and the provision of public services. Using evidence from a case study of reforms in the building sector in Norway, and a case study of water and flood risk management in central Mexico, we analyze the implications of the adoption of the tenets of NPM for adaptive capacity. Our cases illustrate that some of the key attributes associated with governance for adaptation, namely, technical and financial capacities; institutional memory, learning and knowledge; and participation and accountability - have been eroded by NPM reforms. Despite improvements in specific operational tasks of the public sector in each case, we show that the success of NPM reforms presumes the existence of core elements of governance that have often been found lacking, including solid institutional frameworks and accountability. Our analysis illustrates the importance of considering both longer-term adaptive capacities and short-term efficiency goals in public sector administration reform.



Fauchald, Ole Kristian
International Environmental Governance: A Legal Analysis of Selected Options
FNI Report 16/2010. Lysaker, FNI, 2010, 57 p.
> Download full-text version (PDF)

This report concerns institutional reform of the environmental pillar of sustainable development. Its focus is on legal issues that arise in the context of institutional reform. The report discusses three models of institutional reform. These three models have been defined on the basis of the current debate in international institutions and on the basis of an identification of strengths and weaknesses of the current regime for international environmental governance. The three reform models are:
1) strengthening UNEP within its current mandate, combined with enhanced cooperation coordination within groups of MEAs;
2) strengthening UNEP by adding new elements to its mandate, including establishment of a High Commissioner for the Environment; and
3) the establishment of a World Environment Organization.

In relation to each of these models the report analyses potential legal implications of reform for existing MEAs and modalities for how MEAs can be associated with the reformed institutions. The MEAs in question are all 15 global MEAs with significant links to UNEP, including MEAs concerning pollution, hazardous substances and biodiversity.



Sandberg, Kristin I., Steinar Andresen and Gunnar Bjune
'A New Approach to Global Health Institutions? A Case Study of New Vaccine Introduction and the Formation of the GAVI Alliance'
Social Science and Medicine, Vol 71, No 7, 2010, pp 1349-1356.
> Purchase full-text article here

Analysis of forces driving change in global health governance is an emerging research agenda. Here we apply analytical tools derived from international relations theory. The study utlilized two explanatory perspectives, individual leadership and the interests of key non-state actors in explaining regime formation. The case study is the formation of the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization 1995-1999. Findings show that individuals associated with scientific communities were able to make the World Bank and the Gates Foundation champions of a new coordinating mechanism for vaccine introduction. The authority of the WHO was also important in the process. The paper also discusses the potential contribution of the international relations approach compared to policy reserach.



Sandberg, Kristin I. and Steinar Andresen
'From Development Aid to Foreign Policy: Global Immunization Efforts as a Turning Point for Norwegian Engagement in Global Health'
Forum for Development Studies, Vol 37, No 3, 2010, pp. 301-325.
> Purchase full-text article here

With globalization global health issues have become part of the foreign policy agenda in a number of countries, including Norway. This article gives an overview of this emerging process in Norway. The article combines a foreign policy lens with a focus on global national interfaces to analyze the interaction between domestic Norwegian institutions and individuals at the global arena. However most focus is on the interaction between various domestic institutions. The article suggests that the transition from being a subject of development aid to becoming a part of the foregn policy agenda started at the turn of the miilenium with the creation of GAVI and the leadership of Ms Brundtland in the WHO. A growing number of domestic actors are now working in this field characterized by increasing complexity. The article also seeks to draw some more general lessons on the need for novel approaches in studying domestic-international interactions.



Gulbrandsen, Lars H.
Transnational Environmental Governance: The Emergence and Effects of the Certification of Forests and Fisheries.
Cheltenham, UK/Northampton (MA), USA, Edward Elgar, 2010, 213 p. (Hardback)
Cheltenham, UK/Northampton (MA), USA, Edward Elgar, 2012, 213 p. (Paperback)
> For orders and more information, see the Edward Elgar website
> Related FNI news article
> Book review (by Erik Hysing in Environment and Planning C)
> Book review (by J. Samuel Barkin in Global Environmental Politics)
> Book review (by Magnus Boström in Review of Policy Research)
> Book review (by Karen Anderton) in International Environmental Agreements
> Book review (by Kathrin Ludwig and Philipp Pattberg) in Transnational Environmental Law

In recent years a wide range of non-state certification programs have emerged to address environmental and social problems associated with the extraction of natural resources. This book provides a general analytical framework for assessing the emergence and effectiveness of voluntary certification programs. It focuses on certification in the forest and fisheries sectors, as initiatives in these sectors are among the most advanced cases of non-state standard setting and governance in the environmental realm. Paying particular attention to the Forest Stewardship Council and the Marine Stewardship Council, the author examines how certification initiatives emerged, the politics that underlie their development, their ability to influence producer and consumer behavior, and the broader consequences of their formation and spread. The analysis of the certification of forests and fisheries offers a wealth of insights from which to better understand the ability of non-state governance programs to ameliorate global environmental problems.



Auld, Graeme and Lars H. Gulbrandsen
'Transparency in Nonstate Certification: Consequences for Accountability and Legitimacy'
Global Environmental Politics, Vol 10, No 3, 2010, pp. 97-119.
> Download full-text article

Nonstate certification programs have formed in the past 20 years to address social and environmental problems associated with production practices in several economic sectors. These programs embody the idea that information disclosure can be a tool for NGOs, investors, governments, and consumers to support high performers and hence, advocates hope, place upward pressure on sector-wide practices. Many unanswered questions remain, however, about information disclosure's practices and outcomes. We compare the use of procedural and outcome transparency in the rule-making and auditing processes of the Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) and Forest Stewardship Council (FSC). We highlight key differences in how transparency relates to accountability and legitimacy of the programs. The MSC uses transparency and stakeholder consultation instrumentally, whereas the FSC treats them as ends unto themselves. This underscores the importance of considering transparency alongside other governance aspects, such as who the eligible stakeholders are and who gets decision-making power.



Røgeberg, Ole, Steinar Andresen and Bjart Holtsmark
'International Climate Treaties: The Case for Pessimism'
Climate Law, Vol 1, No 1, 2010, pp. 177-197.
> Purchase full-text article here

The COP 15 outcome is consistent with the slow pace and modest achievements made in the course of 20 years of negotiations. There is an increasing realization that supplements will be needed to the UN approach to move the process forward. Still, we have serious doubts that even the cleaverest design and strong political will of key actors will be sufficient to solve the problem. Given the projections for population and economic growth, particularly in the South, the achievement of a temperature-increase maximum of two degrees seems like a mission impossible. The only hope seems to be some kind of technological solution that we are not aware of today.



Tvedt, Morten Walløe
'One Worldwide Patent System: What’s in It for Developing Countries?'
Third World Quarterly, Vol 31, No 2, 2010, pp. 277-293.
> Purchase article here or download post-print version here.
> Read related FNI News Release

This article offers a discussion of the probable effects of a Worldwide Patent System for developing countries. It draws upon insights from the ongoing processes in the World Intellectual Property Organization and elsewhere relevant for the global patent system and discusses these features from a developing country perspective. For scientifically advanced developing countries the effect in their most advanced and most global enterprises is potentially positive as they will benefit as much as other multinational companies. In areas of research and development where these most advanced developing countries do not possess a high level of technological capacity, a Worldwide Patent System is unlikely to create any benefits for them. For countries with the ability to copy and produce inventions made by others a Worldwide Patent System will have a negative effect as inventors will have little opportunity to utilise the system, whereas they will be bound by a larger number of exclusive rights narrowing down their space for innovation. For the least developed countries an additional problem arises: it might become even more difficult to import essential goods because patents will be in force in these countries even though there is no production of that product in the country.



Skodvin, Tora and Steinar Andresen
'An Agenda for Change in U.S. Climate Policies? Presidential Ambitions and Congressional Powers'
International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics, Vol 9, No 3, 2009, pp. 263-280.
> Download full-text post-print version (PDF) or purchase the original article here

U.S. membership in the Asia-Pacific Partnership on Clean Development and Climate (APP) constituted an important element in the Bush administration’s voluntary and non-committing ‘soft-law’ approach to climate change. With the inauguration of President Barack Obama, the U.S. has embarked on a shift in its climate policy towards a legislative, ‘hard-law’ strategy. Obama’s approach implies that the distribution of interests in Congress becomes more significant. In this article, we assess the rules and procedures governing the relationship between the president and the Congress embedded in the U.S. Constitution and explore implications of a stronger congressional involvement in U.S. climate policies for President Obama’s ability to realise his climate policy ambitions at both the domestic and the international levels. We argue that the strong relationship between natural resource dependence (coal and oil) and opposition to climate policies is a constant feature of the U.S. climate policy debate. To succeed, Obama must break the enduring gridlock characterising congressional debate in this policy area by designing policies that, through compromise and compensation, can mobilise the support of oil- and coal-state representatives in Congress. The acceptability of an international climate treaty in Congress, moreover, depends inter alia on the resolution of the difficult issue of developing country participation. Success may be enhanced by using the APP and the Major Economies Initiative as informal arenas for negotiation and sector-based cooperation, thus providing a much-needed supplement to the UN-based negotiation process.



Skjærseth, Jon Birger and Tora Skodvin
Climate Change and the Oil Industry: Common Problems, Varying Strategies. Paperback edition.
Manchester, Manchester University Press, 2009, 260 p.
> For orders and more information, see Manchester University Press

Multinational corporations are not merely the problem in environmental concerns, but could also be part of the solution. The oil industry and climate change provide the clearest example of how the two are linked; what is less known is how industry is responding to these concerns. This volume, available for the first time in paperback, presents a detailed study of the climate strategies of Exxon Mobil, Shell and Statoil. With an innovative analytical approach, variations in corporate climate strategies are explained at three decision-making levels: within the companies themselves, in the national home-bases of the companies, and at the international level. The analysis generates policy-relevant knowledge about whether and how corporate resistance to a viable climate policy can be overcome. The analytical approach developed is also applicable to other areas of environmental degradation where multinational corporations play a central role.



Boasson, Elin Lerum
'On the Management Success of Regulative Failure: Standardised CSR Instruments and the Oil Industry's Climate Performance'
Corporate Governance, Vol 9, No 3, 2009, pp. 313-325.
> Download full-text post-print version (PDF) or access the original article here (subscribers only)

Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) may serve as a regulatory framework for corporate practices or as a management trend that helps to improve the legitimacy of corporations. This article explores whether and how petroleum corporations’ adherence to standardised CSR instruments has influenced how they deal with climate change. It is a comparative case study of Hydro and Shell based on assessments of central documents, publications on CSR and interviews with corporate representatives.

The assessment shows that management trend mode of CSR has prevailed within both companies. Company conduct is deeply influenced by the global petroleum field, but it mainly promotes CSR as legitimacy enhancer and hinders the instruments in working as regulative frameworks. Hydro executives have no aim of applying the CSR instruments to guide their actions. Executives at Shell have tried, but without being fully able to get the vast Shell group to adapt. Thus far, the failure of CSR as a regulative framework seems to contribute to its success as legitimacy enhancing concept. Nonetheless, it is not clear whether the two trends will continue to contrast or if they may start to work in conjunction.



Gulbrandsen, Lars H.
Non-State Global Environmental Governance: The Emergence and Effectiveness of Forest and Fisheries Certification Schemes
Doctoral dissertation, Department of Political Science, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Oslo. Oslo, Unipub, 2009, 234 p.
> Read related FNI news release

This doctoral dissertation examines the emergence and effectiveness of environmental certification in the forestry and fisheries sectors. Certification schemes have emerged from NGO targeting of major retailers along the market supply chain, such as IKEA and Home Depot. Once aligned, those retailers became central allies with NGOs in the process of persuading or forcing producers to adopt standards. The global scheme for forest certification, the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC), has been a model for other certification schemes, including the Marine Stewardship Council in the fisheries sector. In the forestry sector, industry-based certification schemes soon formed to compete with the FSC. These schemes had less stringent environmental and social standards than FSC, but they have gradually strengthened their standards. The study shows that competition among certification schemes has resulted in an upward harmonization of standards. A limitation to effective problem solving is that voluntary certification schemes are often not adopted where there is greatest need to change producer practices.



Andresen, Steinar and G. Kristin Rosendal
'The Role of the United Nations Environment Programme in the Coordination of Multilateral Environmental Agreements'
In Biermann, Frank, Bernd Siebenhüner and Anna Schreyögg (eds), International Organizations and Global Environmental Governance. London, Routledge, 2009, pp. 133-150.
> For orders and more information, see Routledge's website

UNEP’s score regarding coordination is quite low. We explain this by three factors: First, although UNEP is formally the main coordinating actor, there are other relevant actors that have more resources and also very relevant competence. There are examples of synergies, not the least between UNEP and IUCN, but turf battles are more prominent, and UNEP has not profited from the stronger link between environment and the development. Second, UNEP’s location as well as its strained funds explains modest performance. Third, internal organization and bureaucratic culture have also contributed to the rather modest score in terms of coordination. Proposed improvement may include that UNEP needs to focus more on the main challenge in global environmental governance today, namely implementation on the ground. It should also be concentrating more resources in terms of bottom-up think tank assistance and scrap the old top down culture. UNEP can assist countries through its considerable experience and expertise in environmental management.



Flåm, Karoline Hægstad and Jon Birger Skjærseth
'Does Adequate Financing Exist for Adaptation in Developing Countries?'
Climate Policy, Vol 9, No 1, 2009, pp. 109-114.
> Access full-text version here (subscribers only)

Irrespective of mitigation efforts, adaptation measures will be needed in most parts of the world. The greatest challenge will be for developing countries. The estimated needs for adaptation funding in developing countries are considered in the context of the status and ‘delivery’ of the current financing efforts made under the UN regime and the anticipated Adaptation Fund. A considerable gap exists between the actual (as well as projected) supply of funding and estimated adaptation needs. A number of alternative financial mechanisms are suggested to close the gap between estimated needs and actual delivery.



Andresen, Steinar, Elin Lerum Boasson and Geir Hønneland
'Idealer og virkelighet i internasjonal miljøpolitikk' ('International Environmental Policy Cooperation: Ideals and Reality')
In Andresen, Steinar, Elin Lerum Boasson and Geir Hønneland (eds): Internasjonal miljøpolitikk ('International Environmental Politics'). Bergen, Fagbokforlaget, 2008, pp. 187-206. In Norwegian.
> For orders and more information, see Fagbokforlaget's website

This concluding chapter presents a comparison of the nine international environmental regimes assessed in the book. This comparison shows that the cognitive, normative and regulative elements of the international cooperation may all crucially affect how these environmental issues are coped with. While it may be difficult to reach international agreement on strong regulations at an early stage, ambitious normative aims and strong cognitive messages may breed the ground for stronger international regulations later on. Moreover, some problems are harder to cope with at an international political level than others. While these problems often stem from the political malignancy of the issue, there may also be other reasons. While there is a clear tendency to treat more and more types of environmental problems as global, it may in some instances be easier to develop fruitful solutions at a regional level. There are no universal solutions to international political cooperation related to environmental problems. The solutions sought must be adjusted to the nature of the specific character of the different environmental issues.



Andresen, Steinar and Elin Lerum Boasson
'Internasjonalt klimasamarbeid' ('International Climate Cooperation')
In Andresen, Steinar, Elin Lerum Boasson and Geir Hønneland (eds): Internasjonal miljøpolitikk ('International Environmental Politics'). Bergen, Fagbokforlaget, 2008, pp. 71-85. In Norwegian.
> For orders and more information, see Fagbokforlaget's website

The international climate cooperation consists of three elements: The International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the UN Climate Convention and the Kyoto Protocol. IPCC has primarily affected the cognitive understanding of this environmental problem, the convention presents the normative aims and principles while the Kyoto protocol breeds the ground for creation of global and national regulation of mitigation of and adaptation to climate change. The dominant understanding of climate change has changed tremendously during the two decades that have passed since the international cooperation on climate change started. Many countries have also introduced a range of normative and regulative measures. All of the three elements of the international cooperation have been important - although far from the only causal forces - in this respect. Yet the emissions are still increasing. The time constraint concerning the issue and the malign structure poses great challenges for future efforts towards enhancing the international cooperation on climate change.



Andresen, Steinar, Elin Lerum Boasson and Geir Hønneland
'Framveksten av internasjonal miljøpolitikk' ('The Development of International Environmental Politics')
In Andresen, Steinar, Elin Lerum Boasson and Geir Hønneland (eds): Internasjonal miljøpolitikk ('International Environmental Politics'). Bergen, Fagbokforlaget, 2008, pp. 17-35. In Norwegian.
> For orders and more information, see Fagbokforlaget's website

The chapter presents various analytical approaches to international environmental politics and gives an overview of the development of this policy area, globally and in Norway. The theoretical emphasis is on normative, cognitive and regulative mechanisms in environmental governance. International environmental politics has primarily evolved since the early 1970, with the Stockholm Conference on the Human Environment in 1972 as the point of departure. While the early treaties mainly focused on the protection of species and areas, pollution came to the fore during the 1980s, and the international agreements became more concrete and demanding. The "third generation treaties" of the 1990s and 2000s are generally even more sophisticated, and many of them rely on market and incentive based mechanisms.



Skjærseth, Jon Birger
'Internasjonal ozonpolitikk: Eksempel på effektivt miljøsamarbeid' ('International Ozone Politics: An Example of Effective International Cooperation')
In Andresen, Steinar, Elin Lerum Boasson and Geir Hønneland (eds): Internasjonal miljøpolitikk ('International Environmental Politics'). Bergen, Fagbokforlaget, 2008, pp. 55-68. In Norwegian.
> For orders and more information, see Fagbokforlaget's website

In 1974, scientists discovered that man-made substances could destroy the ozone layer. Today, production and consumption of the most important ozone depleting substances have almost ended. The achievements are partly due to an innovative organization of the international cooperation that reduced the scientific uncertainty and promoted high compliance among almost all countries in the world. The other main reason is that the problem is more benign than most other global challenges, such as climate change and loss of biological diversity. Production of ozone depleting substances is not critical to any single company, country or the world economy and substitutes have been developed at a low price. Still, a number of challenges remain and the ozone layer will not be cured until the mid of this century due to the persistence of ozone depleting substances in the atmosphere. This chapter explores how the scientists discovered the problem, how governments and business responded to the challenge and the consequences for Norwegian ozone policy.



Flåm, Karoline Hægstad and Jon Birger Skjærseth
Financing Climate Change Adaptation in Developing Countries: Current Picture and Future Possibilities
Occasional Paper 2/2008. Oslo, Norwegian Church Aid, 2008, 23 p.
> Download full-text version (PDF)

Developed countries have made legal commitments under the UNFCCC to help provide adaptation funding for developing countries. Four multilateral adaptation funds have been established at the international level. The Adaptation Fund under the Kyoto Protocol is financed through a two percent levy on Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) transactions, whereas the three other funds are all dependent on voluntary pledges.

So far, the output of these funds is far short of the estimated needs, even with the AF up and running. However, bilateral ODA has not been taken into account in this paper. Whatever the development of the multilateral adaptation funds, the considerable gap between their projected ‘supply’ and the estimated needs, has made it necessary to consider new and additional ways to generate adaptation funding. We have presented some of the proposals that have been put on the table so far: increasing and/or extending the CDM adaptation levy so that it also covers the JI and the ET; applying adaptation levies on bunker fuelled transports; funding adaptation through carbon taxes; and using revenues from auctioning of emission permits.



Andresen, Steinar, Elin Lerum Boasson and Geir Hønneland (eds)
Internasjonal miljøpolitikk ('International Environmental Politics')
Bergen, Fagbokforlaget, 2008, 210 p. In Norwegian.
> For orders and more information, see Fagbokforlaget
> Read related FNI news release (in Norwegian)

The global climate crisis has brought environmental concern to the top level of international politics. This book gives an overview of the most important international regimes aimed at solving the world's environmental problems, including climate change, pollution to air and water, and loss of biological diversity. The authors describe the problems, the international cooperative mechanisms and their effects, globally and in Norway. They also discuss why the effects vary between different functional fields, and how the regimes can be improved: How can reality be brought closer to the ideals?



Auld, Graeme , Lars H. Gulbrandsen and Constance L. McDermott
'Certification Schemes and the Impacts on Forests and Forestry'
Annual Review of Environment and Resources, Vol 33, 2008, pp. 187-211.
> Access the full-text version (subscribers only)

Certification schemes have emerged in recent years to become a significant and innovative venue for standard setting and governance in the environmental realm. This review examines these schemes in the forest sector where, arguably, their development is among the most advanced of the sustainability labeling initiatives. Beginning with the origins, history, and features of schemes, the review synthesizes and assesses what we know about the direct effects and broader consequences of forest certification. Bearing in mind underlying factors affecting producers’ decisions to certify, direct effects are examined by describing the uptake of schemes, the improvements to management of audited forests, and the ameliorative potential of certification for landscape-level concerns such as deforestation and forest protection. In assessing broader consequences, we look beyond the instrument itself to detail positive and negative unintended consequences, spillover effects, and longer-term and slow-moving effects that flow from the emergence of the certification innovation.



Gulbrandsen, Lars H.
'Organizing Accountability in Transnational Standards Organizations: The Forest Stewardship Council as a Good Governance Model'
In Boström, Magnus and Christina Garsten (eds), Organizing Transnational Accountability. Cheltenham (UK)/Northhampton (USA), Edward Elgar, 2008, pp. 61-79.
> For orders and more information about the book, see Edward Elgar

It is not clear if non-state governance schemes that claim to take responsibility for collective goods or public interests are answerable only to their own members or if they must answer to the general public. In this chapter I examine the notion of accountability as hierarchical control (upward) and the notion of accountability as responsiveness (outward) by looking at accountability arrangements in forest and fisheries certification schemes. I argue that while most non-state certification schemes are well placed to achieve a high standard of accountability as control, multi-stakeholder certification schemes such as the Forest Stewardship Council and the Marine Stewardship Council have a greater organizational capacity for responsiveness than certification schemes dominated by business interests. I also argue that some business dominated certification schemes take advantage of the flow of popular organizational recipes to adopt particular accountability arrangements in order to divert criticism of their activities rather than to enhance responsiveness to those affected by their activities.



Kasa, Sjur, Anne. T. Gullhaug and Gørild Heggelund
'The Group of 77 in International Climate Negotiations: Recent Developments and Future Directions'
International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics, Vol 8, No 2, 2008, pp. 113-127.
> Access the full-text version (subscribers only)

The article describes and analyzes the main set of G77 positions in the climate negotiations and the dynamics behind the emergence of these positions. While it is puzzling that the G77 has managed to maintain itself as a group in spite of internal differences along variables as prosperity, emissions and vulnerability to climate change, the article claims that a core element behind this cohesion is that these countries share domestic governance problems as much as poverty and economic underdevelopment. Second, the article discusses how recent trends of economic and political development in the third world influence the climate policy strategies of the G77 group in the future. The main factor here is the economic and social progress in states like China, India and Brazil, which separates them from the poorer and less powerful G77 states.



Gulbrandsen, Lars H.
'Accountability Arrangements in Non-State Standards Organizations: Instrumental Design and Imitation'
Organization, Vol 15, No 4, 2008, pp. 563-583.
> Download full-text post-print version (PDF) or access the original article here (subscribers only)

This article analyses accountability arrangements in the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) and other organizations that set standards for certification and eco-labeling. It focuses on two types of accountability that are likely to be achievable and important to non-state standards organizations: control and responsiveness. In setting a global standard based on a multi-stakeholder governance structure, FSC established a model for other certification schemes, specifically within the forestry and fisheries sectors. By creating the Marine Stewardship Council (MSC), FSC-supporters exported the certification model to the fisheries sector. Industry-led forest certification schemes that were initiated to compete with FSC and offer an industry-dominated model have come to mimic procedural accountability arrangements initially established by their competitor. However, they have carefully filtered out the prescriptions that could reduce their influence in standard-setting processes. The article argues that while certification schemes could enhance control of corporate environmental and social performance, some of the industry-dominated schemes adopt popular and fashionable accountability recipes to divert criticism of their activities instead of acting responsively to external constituents such as environmental and social groups.



Gulbrandsen, Lars H.
'The Role of Science in Environmental Governance: Competing Knowledge Producers in Swedish and Norwegian Forestry'
Global Environmental Politics, Vol 8, No 2, 2008, pp. 99-122.
> Download full-text version (PDF) or access it at the website of MIT Press, the copyright holder (subscribers only)

This article explores the influence of scientific knowledge in rule-making processes to enhance environmental protection in Swedish and Norwegian forestry. It examines the mapping and protection of small reserves; the development of plans for protection of large reserves; and rule-setting in voluntary forest certification schemes. The analysis shows that Sweden has enacted more stringent environmental protection policies on all measures examined. Whereas variation in the state of knowledge about environmental protection needs does not explain these differences, variation in the access to the science-policy dialogue and in the distribution of costs and benefits in the forestry sector does help explain the differences in the stringency of Norwegian and Swedish forest policy. I conclude that the influence of knowledge depends on the process by which it is created. Although scientific information usually has little influence when strong economic counter-forces are involved in the decision-making process, this problem can be ameliorated by facilitating processes of coproduction of knowledge among scientific experts, practitioners, and decision-makers.



Rosendal, G. Kristin
'Norway in UN Environmental Policies: Ambitions and Influence'
International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics, Vol 7, No 4, 2007, pp. 439-455.
> Download full-text post-print version (PDF) or access the original article here (subscribers only)

This is a study of Norway’s ambitions for influencing UN environmental policies and then on the scope for impact. On the whole, it is clear that Norway has not been particularly successful in its general efforts at strengthening UNEP. These proposals have failed, due mainly to opposition from key states. Norway is after all a minor player in global governance issues, even in those pertaining to the environment. Norway has been more successful in efforts that indirectly strengthen UNEP, by supporting UNEP in initiating new MEAs. We found three main factors that help to explain why Norway has a relatively high level of influence at the international environmental arena compared to its size. First, there is a relatively straightforward domestic decision-making process with little conflict. Second, Norwegian officials and NGOs possess considerable expertise in these issues, adding to the intellectual leadership role of Norway in pushing for new principles and international legislation through UNEP. Third, Norway is sometimes able to join forces in environmental alliances with other like-minded countries. This would seem to carry the widest scope for increasing impact.



Andresen, Steinar (guest ed)
'The Role of UN in Global Environmental Governance: Potential for Increased Effectivenss?'
International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics, Special Issue, Vol 7, No 4, 2007, pp. 317-468.
> For more information see SpringerLink's website

This is a special issue based on a reserach project on the issue, carried out at the Fridtof Nansen Institute. American and European scholars have also been part of the project and have also contributed to this special issue. The first article assesses the effectiveness of key UN institutions and concludes that overall their effectiveness is quite low, although there are variations. The next article goes more in depth regarding one of these instiutions, UNEP, particularly the circumstances regarding its creation. Next follows four articles on key actors witin these institutions: The US, the EU, China and Norway. Their approaches and interests regarding these institutions are very different. This goes a long way in explaining why effectivness is quite low, although other factors play a part as well. Considering the strong variations in preferences and interests, the potential for profund and effective reform is modest.



Andresen, Steinar
'The Effectiveness of UN Environmental Institutions'
International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics, Vol 7, No 4, 2007, pp. 317-336.
> Download full-text post-print version (PDF) or access the original article here (subscribers only)

This is a study of the effectiveness of key UN institutions focusing on environment and sustainable development: The global conferences on development and the environment, the CSD and UNEP, primarily its co-ordinating functions. According to the indicators used to measure effectiveness here, it is concluded that the overall effectiveness of these institutions is quite low. This particularly applies to the CSD. UNEP has been quite effective in creating new institutions but has been less effective in co-ordinating them. As to the global conferences, their significance has been reduced over time.



Andresen, Steinar
'Key Actors in UN Environmental Governance: Influence, Reform and Leadership'
International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics, Vol 7, No 4, 2007, pp. 457-468.
> Download full-text post-print version (PDF) or access the original article here (subscribers only)

In the introductory article to the current journal, it was concluded that the effectiveness of the UN environmental institutions studied was quite low. Key actors, especially the US and the EU, play a considerable role in explaining the course of development in these institutions. However, this does not mean that these processes are mainly state-driven as a number of other factors matter. The potential for reform and increased effectiveness is limited as the main actors, the US the EU and G-77/China have very different interests and perceptions as to the future directions of these institutions.



Kaasa, Stine Madland
'The UN Commission on Sustainable Development: Which Mechanisms Explains Its Accomplishments?'
Global Environmental Politics, Vol 7, No 3, 2007, pp. 107-130.
> Download full-text version (PDF) or access it at the website of MIT Press, the copyright holder (subscribers only)

The CSD has been criticized for lack of effectiveness since its establishment in 1993. The main objective of this article is to describe and explain the mechanisms that affect the work of the CSD in order to understand how it would be possible to enhance the potential for effectiveness. The study applies the perspectives of 'distribution of capabilities' and 'institutional design' to evaluate its accomplishments. The CSD has achieved some results regarding monitoring and reviewing the implementation of Agenda 21 and promoting dialogue and building partnerships, due to the role of NGOs and the Secretariat. However, the member states positions and interests have overall contributed to low goal achievement, especially in the area of policy guidance.



Sæverud, Ingvild A. and Jon Birger Skjærseth
'Oil Companies and Climate Change: Inconsistencies between Strategy Formulation and Implementation?'
Global Environmental Politics, Vol 7, No 3, 2007, pp. 42-63.
> Download full-text version (PDF) or access it at the website of MIT Press, the copyright holder (subscribers only)

This article examines major oil companies in terms of climate strategies and their implementation. More specifically, it takes a critical look at Shell, BP, and ExxonMobil, and the relationship between rhetoric and action regarding investments in climate-friendly activities. Empirical evidence indicates a generally high degree of consistency between what these companies say and what they do, but interesting differences are also found: ExxonMobil has done somewhat more than its climate strategy formulations would suggest; Shell has done somewhat less, whereas BP’s activities are mainly in line with its statements. Factors at three levels contribute to explaining these differences: 1) the company level, 2) the political framework conditions in the various regions where the companies operate, 3) international climate cooperation.

The findings and explanations, although restricted to the three oil companies with regard to climate change, provide insight into the relationship between corporate strategies and implementation more generally. They offer understanding and analytical categories for assessing how well and why such multinational entities put into practice stated objectives.



Andresen, Steinar and Tora Skodvin
'Non-State Influence in the International Whaling Commission'
In Betsill, Michele and Elisabeth Corell (eds), NGO Diplomacy: The Influence of Nongovernmental Organizations in International Environmental Organizations. Cambridge (MA)/London (UK), MIT Press, 2008, pp. 119-149.
> For orders and more information about the book, see MIT Press

This chapter assesses the influnece of three groups of NGOs in the IWC; green NGOs, scientists and industry. A first general conclusion is that the domestic level is of equal, if not greater significance, than the international level. For example, the environmental movement utilized a very powerful channel domestically during the 1980s, instrumental in bringing about the moratorium against commercial whaling. A second general conclusion is that the single most important determinant of scientific impact is is the scientific community's ability to generate consensual knowlledge. A third general conclusion is the significance of how an issue is framed for the turn of events and the subsequent influence of non-state actors. A fourth general conclusion is the importance for NGOs to forge alliances with other actors in order to gain influence.



Fosse, Leif John and Peter Johan Schei (eds)
Can Community Conservation Bring International Goals Down to Earth? Chairman’s Report from a Workshop on the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment
TemaNord Report 543. Copenhagen, Nordic Council of Ministers, 2007, 55 p.

This is a report from a workshop on the role of local communities and indigenous peoples in the follow-up of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment in environment and in development policy and practice. The event formed part of the 26th Annual Conference of the International Association of Impact Assessment in Stavanger, Norway, 23-25 May 2006. The workshop gathered a wide range of expertise including indigenous peoples, people with hands-on and research experience from community based natural resource management, representatives of the International Institute for Environment and Development, The World Conservation Union, World Resources Institute, United Nations Environment Programme, United Nations Development Programme, and the World Bank. The workshop formed part of the Nordic Council of Ministers' efforts to make sure that the knowledge generated, and the policy recommendations made by the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment are acknowledged in relevant international fora, including the multilateral environmental agreements, and the Millennium Development Goals. This report summarises some of the experiences and necessary conditions for community conservation to contribute to these global targets.



Tvedt, Morten Walløe
'The Path to One Universal Patent'
Environmental Policy and Law, Vol 37, No 4, 2007, pp. 297-305.
> Download full-text post-print version (PDF) or access the original article here (subscribers only)

A world patent or universal patent describes an exclusive right granted to one individual company or person, by one centralised institution, which at once becomes legally binding for all citizens in all the countries subscribing to the system, and enforceable upon every private person and public institution globally. Currently, there is not one single coherent world patent system, but rather a number of nation-specific systems tied together by international harmonisation and regional cooperation. A universal world patent would be a huge benefit for multinational companies seeking worldwide exclusive (time-limited) monopolies. The article identifies the following four steps as those required before a worldwide patent bureau can grant the first world patent:
1. Change the authorisation of the WIPO Bureau from being a fact-finding bureau to one with the competence to grant patents (or agreeing that the trilateral offices are to share the role as a universal bureau).
2. Harmonise the pre-grant issues, as prior art, novelty, inventiveness, industrial application, grace period and the right owner of the patent.
3. Make national decisions recognising and accepting the universal world patent granted by the worldwide patent bureau (ratification or membership).
4. Establish a system for reviewing and revoking a patent after it has been granted (although this is not immediately necessary for granting patents).

Such a supranational system would break radically with the present system of international law. The basic principle in international law is that states are the subjects of law. Private citizens are not automatically bound by international treaties. An international agreement must be transferred into national legislation to alter the legal situation between private parties. If a world patent bureau is authorised to grant patents, this will break with the current system in international law in establishing a law level above that of the nation state; it will be supranational. This article also identifies the relevant forums where such a Universal Patent System is emerging.



Korppoo, Anna
Russian Voluntary Targets Proposal
Workshop Report. London, Climate Strategies, 2007, 5 p.
> Download paper from the Climate Strategies website

he Russian Federation initiated a discussion on voluntary targets in COP-12 in Nairobi in December 2006. The proposal is divided into two main parts; a) access to Annex B for those countries not included in it; and b) establishment of a framework for voluntary targets, and financial and technological incentives to support them. This workshop report aims toclarify the proposal and the initial responses to it.



Andresen, Steinar and Jon Birger Skjærseth
'Science and Technology: From Agenda Setting to Implementation'
In Bodansky, D., J. Brunnee and E. Hey (eds), The Oxford Handbook of International Environmental Law. Oxford/New York, Oxford University Press, 2007, pp. 182-205.
> For orders and more information about the book, see Oxford University Press

We discuss how science and technology, conceived of as two separate processes, can contribute to enhance the effectiveness of international environmental politics. As to science, it represents an important premise for decision makers in the five international regimes studied.There is a tendency to more and border input as regimes mature. However science tends to be most important in the agenda setting stage. Although science is important as decision premise, it usually has a moderate impact on decisions taken unless it interacts with other 'benign' factors such as a feasible technological cure. Much less is known about how technology can be utilized to enhance effectiveness. Even though technology can contribute to solving transnational environmental problems, it is not generally reflected in the 'design' of the regimes. However, some international regimes use technology specifications as parts of their rules and standards. Technology can also be utilized to enhance effectiveness of international regimes when commitments are implemented at the national level in the form of policy instruments.



Wettestad, Jørgen
'Monitoring and Verification'
In Bodansky, D., J. Brunnee and E. Hey (eds), The Oxford Handbook of International Environmental Law. Oxford/New York, Oxford University Press, 2007, pp. 974-995.
> For orders and more information about the book, see Oxford University Press

To what extent do flexibility mechanisms represent totally new challenges and require new procedures and solutions regarding monitoring and verification in international environmental politics? A first main finding is that, for a long time, international environmental commitments were only monitored, with very little verification. But verification has increased over time, through the use of review teams and the establishment and operation of compliance committees. Hence, although the increasing use of flexibility instruments can benefit from established monitoring procedures and some relevant baseline data, the foundation is not ‘rock solid’ – regarding data, verification instruments and practice in particular. The increasing use of international emissions trading and other flexibility mechanisms undoubtedly means more complex multi-level governance systems and hence increasing challenges. But institutional capacity also is increasing, not least on the verification side. Formal access will probably increase as well, partly due to electronic registries at various levels. Hence, no dramatic change in terms of the balance between challenges and capacities should be expected. If a change in this balance occurs, the change will probably be more towards an improving situation.



Stokke, Olav Schram
'Qualitative Comparative Analysis, Shaming, and International Regime Effectiveness'
Journal of Business Research, Vol 60, No 5, 2007, pp. 501-511.
> Download full-text post-print version (PDF) or access the original article here (subscribers only)

The article presents and applies a set-theoretic comparative technique, qualitative comparative analysis (QCA), to a string of case studies on shaming as a strategy for improving the effectiveness of international regimes for resource management. This technique is particularly attractive when the number of cases available is greater than the researcher can reliably handle by narrative comparison, yet too low to support statistical procedures. QCA can capture causal conjunctions, even in small-to-intermediate-N situations, primarily because it permits the introduction of simplifying assumptions in a way that maintains a clear connection to the underlying cases – thus allowing substantive evaluation of their plausibility. A more recent fuzzy-set version lifts two limitations of the crisp-set version of QCA examined here (i.e., that variables must be dichotomous, and that the analysis makes no allowance for measurement error and non-modeled causality).



Stokke, Olav Schram
'Examining the Consequences of International Regimes'
In Stokke, Olav Schram and Geir Hønneland (eds), International Cooperation and Arctic Governance: Regime Effectiveness and Northern Region Building. London, Routledge, 2007, pp. 13-26.
> See Routledge for more information about the book

The analytical framework advanced in this chapter structure the book’s case studies of Arctic institutions at work in five important policy areas: indigenous affairs, communicable diseases, pollution control and biodiversity, climate change and environmental concerns in the oil and gas sectors. The framework has three main components. Effectiveness is assessed by examining whether an institution contributes significantly to the removal or mitigation of the problem that motivated its formation. Such contributions may occur by generating information about the severity of the problem or ways to mitigate it, by making international norms more compelling, or by altering the ability of relevant actors to behave in desirable ways or the cost associated with failure to do so. The same underlying causal mechanisms – shorthanded as ‘cognitive’, ‘normative’ or ‘utilitarian’ – are drawn upon when examining impacts on political participation in Arctic decision making and the development of closer ties between governments, organizations and individuals in the North. Such regional ties show up not only in direct interaction but also in how problems and opportunities are framed by players inside and outside the region.



Gulbrandsen, Lars H.
'Creating Markets for Eco-labelling: Are Consumers Insignificant?'
International Journal of Consumer Studies, Vol 30, No 5, 2006, pp. 477-489.

The proliferation of voluntary certification and labeling schemes for environmentally and socially responsible production is often seen as driven by companies and consumer demand. Through a careful examination of the initiation and spread of such initiatives in the fishery and forestry sectors, this article challenges a rational-economic perspective that sees the spread of non-state governance schemes primarily as a market-driven phenomenon. Drawing on a political consumerism perspective, it is argued that transnational environmental group networks and their targeting of firms were key to the emergence of non-state eco-labeling schemes, and that most firms decided to support or participate in such schemes only after intensive environmental group pressure. The article opposes the view that non-state governance challenge traditional state authority by showing that states, through public procurement policies and support, in many countries contributed to create markets for forestry and fishery labeling. Although some states have been more skeptical of fishery labeling, largely because of the way fishery resources are managed, they have come to accept it as a helpful supplement to public rules and regulations.



Skjærseth, Jon Birger, Olav Schram Stokke and Jørgen Wettestad
'Soft Law, Hard Law, and Effective Implementation of International Environmental Norms'
Global Environmental Politics, Vol 6, No 3, 2006, pp. 104-120.
> Download full-text version (PDF)

The article compares the interplay between soft law institutions and those based on hard law in international efforts to protect the North Sea, reduce transboundary air pollution, and discipline fisheries subsidies. Our cases confirm that ambitious norms are more easily achieved in soft law institutions than in legally binding ones, but not primarily because they bypass domestic ratification or fail to raise concerns for compliance costs. More important is the greater flexibility offered by soft law instruments with respect to participation and sectoral emphasis. Second, ambitious soft law regimes put political pressure on laggards in negotiations over binding rules, but this effect is contingent on factors such as political saliency and reasonably consensual risk and option assessment. Third, hard-law instruments are subject to more thorough negotiation and preparation which, unless substantive targets have been watered down, makes behavioral change and problem solving more likely. Finally, although most of the evidence presented here confirms the implementation edge conventionally ascribed to hard law institutions, the structures for intrusive verification and review that provide part of the explanation can also be created within soft law institutions.



Skodvin, Tora, Steinar Andresen and Jon Hovi (guest eds)
'Special issue: The negotiation and Effectiveness of International Environmental Agreements'
Global Environmental Politics, Vol 6, No 3, 2006, 143 p.
> More information here

The first part focuses on negotiations of environmental agreements. Skodvin and Andresen critically examines shortcomings of conceptualization of leadership in international regime formation and change. Hovi and Sprinz analyze conditions that tend to limit the domain of of the socalled 'law of the least ambitious program'. Miles uses the analytical 'effectiveness prespcetive' to assess the effectiveness of the Third UN Law of the Sea Conference. Finally in this section Malnes explores problematic sides of the close interaction between science and policy in regime formation. The second part focuses on regime effectiveness. Mitchell argues that such assessments require that the structure of the problems are carefully accounted for. Victor explores factors that might contribute to overcome the law of the least ambitious program in efforts to achieve an effective climate regime. Skjærseth, Stokke and Wettestad explore how the interplay between 'hard law' and 'soft law' may enhance the effectiveness of international regimes. Finally Young and Zurn present and analyze the International Regimes Database.



Skodvin, Tora and Steinar Andresen
'Leadership Revisited'
Global Environmental Politics, Vol 6, No 3, 2006, pp. 13-28.
> Download full-text version (PDF)

In the late 1980s and early 1990s the concept of leadership was introduced in the study of international regimes to describe the role negotiating parties sometimes would take on to craft agreement. At the time the concept seemed to grasp an essential feauture of multilateral negotiations: that parties can be differentiated by the extent to which they take on particular responsibility in guiding the others towards a joint solution. In this article we revisit the concept by asking what the characteristic features of leadership are in international negotiations. Our anlysis shows that current conceptualization is ambiguous and this makes it hard to distinguish leadership from other types of bargaining behavior. This problem is reproduced in empirical identifications of leadership.



Stokke, Olav Schram, Jon Hovi and Geir Ulfstein (eds)
Implementing the Climate Regime - International Compliance
Earthscan, January 2005, 272 p.
> More information

The international climate regime is only as good as the compliance mechanisms that ensure its effectiveness. This book is the first thorough evaluation of its compliance system, assessing its robustness and ability to cope with internal and external pressures and obstacles to meaningful compliance by national governments and other bodies such as business and industry affected by climate treaties. It covers four main themes: a comparative analysis of the formation and structure of the compliance system and the controversies that surrounded it; verification and its ability to respond to climate-specific challenges and obstacles; how external compliance mechanisms such as trade measures can work alongside internal ones; and the role of corporations and NGOs in its implementation. This will be the authoritative treatment of this essential aspect of the regime to deal with the major challenge facing the international community.



Andresen, Steinar and Lars H. Gulbrandsen
'The Role of Green NGOs in Promoting Climate Compliance'
In Stokke, Hovi and Ulfstein (eds), Implementing the Climate Regime: International Compliance. London, Earthscan, 2005, pp. 169-186.

This chapter explores the influence of environmental non-governmental organizations (NGOs) on the design of the climate compliance regime, flexibility mechanisms, and sinks and how they work to enhance climate performance among both Parties and non-Parties to the Kyoto Protocol. NGOs won acceptance for the dual approach to compliance, with both a facilitative and an enforcement branch, a strong enforcement mechanism, and potentially significant scope for NGO participation in enforcement branch deliberations. A few advisory NGOs seem to have influenced the design of the compliance regime, but it is less certain what their influence would have been without the US coming up with essentially the same approach. NGO influence on the interpretation of sinks and the design of the flexibility mechanisms has been very modest. With regard to enhancing future climate performance, it is shown that NGOs are likely to use both instruments in the compliance system and various strategies to promote their interpretation of the flexibility mechanisms and sinks.



Gulbrandsen, Lars H. and Steinar Andresen
'NGO Influence in the Implementation of the Kyoto Protocol: Compliance, Flexibility Mechanisms and Sinks'
Global Environmental Politics, Vol 4, No 4, 2004, pp. 54-75.
> Download fulltext version (PDF)

While most scholars agree that NGOs make a difference in global environmental politics, there has been little systematic work that looks at the actual influence NGOs have on policy outcomes. This paper looks to shed some new light on the question of NGO effectiveness through an evaluation of the role played by NGOs in climate negotiations. We begin with a brief sketch of different kinds of green NGOs, along with a review of the sorts of strategies and resources they employ. Next, we look to gauge the influence that NGOs have had on recent rounds of negotiations to do with compliance, flexibility mechanisms, and appropriate crediting rules for sinks. Our analysis is based on detailed interviews with members of some of the most prominent environmental NGOs involved in climate work. Finally, we suggest, based on our findings, some means by which NGOs may look to extend their influence in the development of the climate regime. Our analysis points to the crucial need for further “insider” capacity—that is, NGOs are likely to have the most far-reaching influence on future climate negotiations if they foster ways to work closely and collaboratively with key negotiators and governments.



Hovi, Jon, Tora Skodvin and Andresen, Steinar
'The Persistence of the Kyoto Protocol: Why Other Annex I Countries Move on Without the US'
Global Environmental Politics, Vol 3, No 4, 2003, pp. 1-24.
> Download fulltext version (PDF)

The United States, the world's largest emitter of greenhouse gases, is not going to ratify the Kyoto Protocol (KP) for the foreseeable future. Yet most other countries have decided to remain on the Kyoto track. Four main explanations for this seeming puzzle is discussed. The first is that the other countries still think the KP will lead to substantial cuts in emissions and that this will outweigh the costs of implementation. Secondly, by implementing the treaty, parties hope that others will follow suit later on. Thirdly, EU climate institutions have created a momentum that has made it difficult to change course. Finally, the KP persistence may be linked to the ambition of the EU to stand forth as a leader in the game. While the two first explanations are discarded, the two latter ones seem more promising.



Skjærseth, Jon Birger and Tora Skodvin
'Climate Change and the Oil Industry: Common Problems, Different Strategies'
Global Environmental Politics, Vol 1, No 4, 2001, pp. 43-64.
> Download fulltext version (PDF)

The primary focus of most academic climate policy studies has been the robustness of climate science and the development of international negotiations and institutions, in which states, and sometimes societies, have been pinpointed as the key players. Systematic comparative studies of multinational and even global non-governmental actors have been in short supply. This research lacuna is particularly glaring since the position of a major non-state actor - the oil industry - may be crucial to the viability of the climate regime. This analysis shows firstly that there are striking differences in the ways European-based and US-based oil companies have responded to the climate issue - here represented by the Royal Dutch/Shell Group and ExxonMobil. Secondly, the analysis suggests that one major source of explanation to this difference is found in the national political contexts of the companies' home-base countries. The importance of national political context implies that the conditions for changing oil companies` climate strategies are likely to be located in the political context rather than in the companies themselves.



Miles, Edward, Arild Underdal, Steinar Andresen, Jørgen Wettestad, Jon B. Skjærseth and Elaine Carlin
Environmental Regime Effectiveness: Confronting Theory with Evidence
Cambridge (MA) and London (UK), MIT Press, 2001, 508 p.

One key question within political science is whether international regimes have an independent effect or whether they are merely a reflex of underlying power structures. Within this joint international project we discussed this question in relation to 15 international regimes, all of them within the issue area of the environment apart from one control regime. As we broke the regimes up in various components and time phases, altogether we had more than 30 units of analysis. Here are some of the main conclusions: First, most environmental regimes do succeed in changing actor behaviour in the direction intended. Second, even strongly malign problems can be solved effectively, although there are exceptions. Third, most regimes tend to grow and become more effective as they develop. There are also indications that more recent regimes are more effective than older regimes, compared at the same time of their life cycles. Five, deliberate institutional engineering is possible under certain circumstances. As for the bad news, first, although there are progress, there is substantial room for improvements. Second., some improvements are also essentially due to fortunate circumstances. Third, problems characterised by high malignancy and poor knowledge are very difficult to deal effectively with. Fourth, although political engineering is possible it will most often be a difficult exercise. Finally, even though soft factors like knowledge and organisational arrangements may make a difference, in dealing with highly malign problems, power seems to be a critical asset.
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 Global governance and sustainable development
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Fridtjof Nansen Institute
P.O. Box 326, 1326 Lysaker, Norway. Tel: (+47) 67111900 / E-mail: post (+@fni.no)