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FNI PUBLICATION SUMMARIES

Arctic and Russian Politics



Østerud, Øyvind and Geir Hønneland
'Geopolitics and International Governance in the Arctic'
Arctic Review on Law and Politics, Vol 5, No 2, 2014, pp. 156-176.

The Arctic has been the object of heated political discussion in recent years, in the scholarly literature as in real life. The region went from a potential conflict zone during the Cold War to an arena for international cooperation immediately after. Since the mid-2000s, there has again been increased attention on the conflict potential of the Arctic, this time related to its resources. The literature on international relations (IR) in the Arctic has been mainly empirical in orientation, although framed in the major IR traditions of realism (traditional geopolitics), institutionalism and (to a lesser extent) constructivism. The English-language literature on Arctic politics is by and large framed in institutional terms. The discussion is not whether institutions matter in Arctic politics, but how they best can be crafted in order to maintain peace and stability in the region. Speculations about a ‘scramble for the Arctic’ have more or less unanimously been refuted in the literature. The French literature, on the other hand, is largely framed in a geopolitical context. French geopolitics is less concerned with the global power game than with the rivalry between states for strategic resources. The institutions of cooperation are, however, downplayed.



Wegge, Njord
'The Emerging Politics of the Arctic Ocean: Future Management of the Living Marine Resources'
Marine Policy, Vol 51, 2015, pp. 331-338.
> Purchase original article here or download post-print version here.

This article seeks to identify and analyze the most important political issues at stake with respect to the ongoing process regarding the future management of living resources in the high seas of the Arctic Ocean. Through assessing the potential for future commercial utilization of marine resources in the Arctic Ocean and analyzing the differences between the interests of engaged stakeholders in the process, the article seeks to answer whose interests and norms seem to most strongly influence the unfolding political processes and preliminary outcomes. The article concludes by identifying how the five Arctic coastal states have retained the upper hand in this process through skilled political entrepreneurship, the devotion of necessary resources and the political commitment of their respective governments.



Stokke, Olav Schram
'Arctic Council'
In J.-F. Morin and A. Orsini (eds), Essential Concepts of Global Environmental Governance. London, Routledge, 2015, pp. 7-9.
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The Arctic Council is an international soft-law institution established in 1996 to address issues of environmental protection and sustainable development in the Arctic. This chapter, which is part of a volume aiming to compile the main pieces of the global environmental governance puzzle, describes the structure, evolution and outputs of the Arctic Council, placing it in the larger context of global environmental governance. The Council’s recent acceptance of six permanent observer applications, including those from China and India, reflects acknowledgement that many activities that produce Arctic environmental challenges occur outside the region or fall under the full or partial jurisdiction of non-Arctic states.



Stokke, Olav Schram
'International Environmental Governance and Arctic Security'
In R. Tamnes and K. Offerdal (eds), Geopolitics in the Arctic. Regional Dynamics in a Global World. London, Routledge, 2014, pp. 121-146.
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How can international environmental governance promote security objectives in the Arctic - a region characterized by brisk environmental change, rising economic activity and a string of unsettled jurisdictional issues? In this chapter, I argue that international institutions for managing the resources, transport lanes and natural environment of the Arctic provide crucial means for enhancing the security of Arctic states and communities. They do so by clarifying regulatory and enforcement competence over regional activities and resources, by helping states to manage existing disputes, and by enmeshing key decision-makers in Arctic states in transnational networks that raise their stakes in cooperative relations.



Claes, Dag Harald and Arild Moe
'Arctic Petroleum Resources in a Regional and Global Perspective'
In Rolf Tamnes and Kristine Offerdal (eds), Geopolitics and Security in the Arctic: Regional Dynamics in a Global World. London, Routledge, 2014, pp. 97-120.
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There is a potential for energy related conflicts in the Arctic, but it has been widely overstated, in terms of likelihood, magnitude and consequences. The resources are not located in no man’s land, but are mostly to be found on undisputed continental shelves. The risk of conflict due to disputes over the outer delimitation of the continental shelf is small, as a conflict would undermine the legitimacy of UNCLOS in the Arctic, a regime which is very important for all Arctic coastal states. Also other institutions prompting the littoral states to cooperate have been in place for decades. Arctic resource development is strongly influenced by developments taking place outside the region, and the commercial value of oil and gas in the Arctic must be compared to oil and gas reserves in other regions of the world. There are more political conflicts related to energy within major Arctic energy states than between them. In sum, the prospects for regional stability are not hampered by the potential for energy production in the Arctic. It is more relevant to question the commercial viability of these resources, and how they might contribute to regional and global energy security.



Hønneland, Geir
'Norway's High Arctic Policy'
In Robert W. Murray and Anita Dey Nuttall (eds), International Relations and the Arctic: Understanding Policy and Governance. Amherst (USA), Cambria Press, 2014, pp. 235-261.
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This chapter presents the three layers of Norwegian High Arctic policies: the legacy from the Cold War: security, jurisdiction and fisheries management; the legacy from the 1990s: institutional collaboration with Russia; and the period after the turn of the millennium: the diversification of High North policies to include domestic and circumpolar politics. Collaboration with Russia on a wide range of arenas still dominates budget allocations in Norway’s High North politics. Furthermore, major jurisdictional achievements have been made in the Barents Sea in recent years: the settlement of the outer limits of the Norwegian continental shelf in 2009, and the delimitation line with Russia in 2010. This is seen as paving the way for further offshore petroleum development in the near future. Norwegian High Arctic policy is indeed still primarily focused on the ‘lower’ Arctic of the near abroad.



Wegge, Njord
'China in the Arctic. Interests, Actions and Challenges'
Nordlit, No 32, 2014, pp. 83-98.
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This article gives an overview of China’s interest in and approach to the Arctic region. The following questions are raised: 1.Why is China getting involved in the Arctic, 2. How is China’s engagement in the Arctic playing out? 3, What are the most important issues that need to be solved in order for China to increase its relevance and importance as a political actor and partner in the Arctic. In applying a rationalist approach when answering the research questions, I identify how China in the last few years increasingly has been accepted as a legitimate stakeholder in the Arctic, with important stakes and activities in areas such as shipping, resource utilization and environmental science. The article concludes with pointing out some issues that remain to be solved including Chinas role in issues of global politics, the role of observers in the Arctic Council as well as pointing out how China itself needs to decide important aspects of their future role in the region.



Moe, Arild
'The future of Arctic oil and gas development - Russian and Norwegian perspectives'
In Oran R. Young, Jong Deog Kim, Yoon Hyung Kim (eds), The Arctic in World Affairs - A North Pacific Dialogue on the Future of the Arctic. Seoul / Honolulu, Korea Maritime Institute / East-West Center, 2013, pp. 169-176.
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Policies with regard to offshore Arctic development vary considerably among the coastal Arctic states. Norway is currently pursuing an active licensing policy. Russia has given development of Arctic resources high priority, but there is a contradiction between the declared goal of rapidly developing Arctic offshore petroleum resources and the constraints imposed by national control and monopolization. In the U.S., the urgency of Arctic energy development is much lower than a few years ago, due to the revolution in unconventional gas and oil. In Canada the development of Alberta oil sands is at the center of attention, and Arctic offshore energy development does not seem to be a high priority. Environmental concerns and potential impacts on native communities are extremely important. Greenland connects its prospects for becoming fully independent from Denmark to future petroleum revenues. Despite this, recent developments have shown that environmental counter arguments also carry weight.



Hønneland, Geir
Arctic Politics, the Law of the Sea and Russian Identity
Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan, 2014, 132 p.
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Political interest in the Arctic has been growing rapidly in recent years, with Russia - the Arctic state with the longest shoreline - at the centre of attention. A first indication of Russia's stance on Arctic delimitation politics came with the 2010 signing of the agreement with Norway to divide the long-disputed area in the Barents Sea into two equal parts. The agreement was hailed in the international community as a sign of Russian willingness to compromise in Arctic politics. Segments of the Russian public, however, saw it as a veritable act of treason and the agreement barely scraped through the ratification process in the State Duma. This book analyses the Russian opposition to the delimitation agreement in light of both the Law of the Sea and Russian identity, arguing that the agreement's critics and proponents inscribe themselves into different Russian narratives about Russia's rightful place in the world.



Jensen, Leif Christian
'The Times They Are A- Changin’: Norsk sikkerhet og usikkerhet i nordområdene' ('The Times They Are A-Changin': Norwegian Security and Insecurity in the High North')
Internasjonal Politikk, Vol 72, No 1, 2014, pp. 7-29. In Norwegian.
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The article examines and discusses the development of the security concept in the High North from the turn of the millennium to 2010. Norway’s ambitious political undertaking of 2005, now known as the High North Initiative, and the activation of discursive processes whereby the security of the High North not only attracted greater attention but also became intrinsic to a widening array of policy issues. The objective is to show how current security perceptions are coloured by the past, and that conceptions and understandings of security are relational and open to continual change. The analysis is based on empirical data derived from Norwegian primary texts and Norwegian media through a large data set totalling 1,133 newspaper articles. Analytically, the article combines a Foucauldian discourse analysis with elements of the Copenhagen School’s securitization theory.



Jensen, Leif Christian
'The High North Represents the Potential, the Optimism, the Tensions and the Bridge'
Barents Studies, Vol 1, No 1, 2014, pp. 128-131.
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Norway is suffering from an identity crisis in the High North, having found it difficult to uphold its identity as an altruistic, credible steward and protector of the vulnerable High North environment – while also earning money by extracting petroleum in the very same region. When identities come under pressure, they tend to be communicated very actively, in order to survive. That is very much the case when it comes to the colliding identities of Norway as both an environmental nation and a petroleum nation. This is also where Russia enters the narrative. In the High North, Russia is our significant other. Russia is the difference to the Norwegian self. Russia is everything that Norway is not. In other words, the othering of Russia in the north is absolutely imperative to the many and often incoherent identities Norway is trying to balance in the North. In relation to Russia in the Arctic, Norway is confirmed as an altruistic, peaceful, environmentally-friendly nation, but the narrative about Norway’s identity also constitutes and keeps alive an identity of Norway as a small, vulnerable nation that needs support from its bigger and more powerful friends in the West. Using the case of Norway in the High North and the othering of Russia, I show in my dissertation how identity and policy are mutually constitutive. It is my hope that this study will add texture to the current political literature on the Arctic, which very often adopts a classical political science understanding of politics that takes the constitution of the social as a given, concerning itself more with the outcome of various specific processes, given that the social matrix, so to speak, is already in place.



Rottem, Svein Vigeland
'The Political Architecture of Security in the Arctic - the Case of Norway'
Arctic Review on Law and Politics, Vol 4, No 2, 2013, p. 234-255.
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With the receding sea ice a new reality is taking hold in the Arctic. The purpose of this article is to explore Norway’s defence and security challenges in the region in light of this development. It is argued that we need a broader analysis of the parameters of security policy. Structuring the article is an analytical distinction between security challenges according to whether they inhere principally at the international, regional or national level. The different levels do not exist in isolation, but as a means of structuring an analysis of security challenges in the Arctic, it is a productive division. It is argued that there is a good chance of a civilized Arctic in the future, and softer national security challenges are likely to take precedence. However, one should not lose sight of international and regional security challenges.



Hønneland, Geir (ed)
The Politics of the Arctic
Cheltenham, Edward Elgar, 2013, 722 p.
> More information about the book

The Arctic is melting and scientists are uncertain about how this will affect ecosystems. At the same time, the Arctic is the object of heated political discussion. Who shall extract the oil and gas when the ice disappears? How are marine delimitation lines established? Who will control the new sea routes that are opening up? Who actually owns the Arctic? This volume brings together some of the most relevant journal articles on international relations in the Arctic published since the end of the Cold War. The articles discuss circumpolar and regional Arctic governance, including the claim that a 'scramble for the Arctic' is underway.



Hønneland, Geir
'Introduction'
In G. Hønneland, The Politics of the Arctic. Cheltenham, Edward Elgar, 2013, pp. 13-18.
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The chapter provides an overview of the international relations (IR) literature on Arctic politics from the later years of the Cold War until today, from "the age of the Arctic" to the "scrable for the Arctic". Despite the largely empirical orientation of this literature, we catch glimpses of all the three major theory traditions in IR: realism, institutionalism and constructivism. Many contricutions to the literature are explicitly or implicitly situated in the institutionalist school, by their preoccupation with international regimes and the potential for cooperation rather than conflict among the Arctic states. In recent years, debates have centred around the question whether a scramble for the Arctic is indeed underway, and whether there is a need for an overarching Arctic treaty to supplement the existing Law of the Sea.



Hønneland, Geir, Paul Medley and John Hambrey
MSC Sustainable Fisheries Certification: FIUN Barents & Norwegian Seas Cod and Haddock Fishery
Inverness, Food Certification International, 2013, 274 p.
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The report provides details of the Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) assessment process for the Fishing Industry Union of the North (FIUN, Murmansk) cod and haddock fishdry. On the completion of the assessment and scoring process, involving extensive stakeholder consultation, the assessment team concluded that the FIUN be certified according to the Marine Stewardship Council Principles and Criteria for Sustainable Fisheries. There are a number of areas which reflect positively on the fishery at the time of certification: The status of the stock for both cod and haddock is excellent. The Norwegian-Russian management regime is well established and robust. There is good scientific foundation for management decisions. IUU fishing has been halted and compliance is generally high.



Kryukov, Valeriy and Arild Moe
'Oil Industry Structure and Developments in the Resource Base: Increasing Contradictions?'
In Jakub M Godzimirski (ed), Russian Energy in a Changing World: What is the Outlook for the Hydrocarbons Superpower? Farnham, Ashgate, 2013, pp. 35-56.
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Russian energy resources are spread out over large territories, some of which are very poorly developed in infrastructure. This obviously has consequences for time and costs in developing the resources. The general trend has been movement from west to the east, from south to the north, from onshore to offshore, and from relatively shallow to deeper geological strata. Also the composition of the reserves to be developed is changing, from relatively simple and well-known compositions to more complex ones. The Russian hydrocarbon resource base is not being exhausted in absolute term, but we are witnessing the exhaustion of the best located and relatively uncomplicated deposits. This chapter reviews developments in the resource base for oil, discussing whether the structure of the Russian oil industry and policy trends in this regard fit the resource situation. The underlying argument is that the future of Russian oil production will depend on alignment of the resource picture, industry structure and policies.



Rowe, Lars
'Sovjetunionen og den kalde krigen' ('Soviet Union and the Cold War')
In H.H. Waage, R. Tamnes and H.H. Vik (eds), Krig og fred i det lange 20. århundre. Oslo, Cappelen Damm Akademisk, 2013, pp. 67-88. In Norwegian.
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This book is a political history of the long twentieth century (1870-1914). Rowe’s contribution focuses on the Soviet Union in the Cold War era. The emergence of the Soviet empire is discussed, and Moscow’s struggle against Western imperialism is explained and reviewed with an emphasis on the Soviet vantage point. Rowe’s chapter gives a glimpse into the economic and political nature of the Soviet state, and seeks answers as to why Moscow chose confrontation in the post-war years and why the Socialist state and its empire finally crumbled in 1991.



Rowe, Lars
Pechenganikel: Soviet Industry, Russian Pollution, and the Outside World
Doctoral dissertation, University of Oslo, 2013, 339 p.
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In his study of the history of the nickel industry in Northwest Russia, Rowe examines why the Pechenga area was annexed by the Soviet Union from Finland in 1944, how the Soviet state incorporated the local nickel resource in its industrial strategy and to which degree the resulting transboundary pollution was adressed through cooperative efforts in the post-Soviet era.



Jørgensen, Anne-Kristin and Geir Hønneland
'In cod we trust: Konjunkturer i det norsk-russiske fiskerisamarbeidet' ('In Cod We Trust: Trends in Norwegian-Russian Fisheries Relations')
Nordisk Østforum, Vol 27, No 4, 2013, pp. 353-376.
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The article outlines the development of the bilateral Norwegian-Russian fisheries management regime since its establishment in the mid-1970s and discusses how fisheries cooperation in the post-Soviet period has been influenced by three factors external to the regime: the political climate between Russia and the West, Norwegian-Russian cooperation in the commercial sphere and the internal political and economic development in Russia. While cooperation in the early 1990s was characterized by good relations and a high level of regulative activity, the climate between the parties cooled off towards the turn of the millennium, and it became difficult to reach agreement on some issues. Since the early 2000s, development has been mainly positive, with both parties taking a pragmatic approach to cooperation.



Jørgensen, Jørgen Holten
'Hvor normalt kan Svalbard bli? Et lite stykke Russland i møte med norsk forvaltning' ('How Normal Can Svalbard Be? A Small Part of Russia in Encounter with Norwegian Governance')
Nordisk Østforum, Vol 27, No 4, 2013, pp. 327-351.
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The Svalbard (Spitsbergen) archipelago is governed on the basis of the Svalbard Treaty of 1920, which gives Norway sovereignty over Svalbard and thus responsibility for administering the islands, while at the same time alloqing all signatory states equal rights to extracting natural resources an upholding other commercial activities. While most of the economic "adventures" of the early 20th century found Svalbard to be of little economic interest, the Soviet Union maintained a strong presence throughout the century, thus de facto making Svalbard a place for bilateral Soviet-Norwegian relations. The arcticle explores how Norway, starting in the 1960s, has gradually attempted to increase its management in the Soviet, and later Russian, settlements, and increasingly so after the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. Environmental issues have been instrumental in improving Norway's management capabilities, which have caused frustration in Moscow.



Rowe, Lars, Elana Wilson Rowe and Geir Hønneland
'Health and Human Security: Communicable Diseases in the Post-Soviet Arctic'
In Gunhild Hoogensen Gjørv, Dawn R. Bazely, Marina Goloviznina and Andrew Tanentzap (eds), Environmental and Human Security in the Arctic. London/New York, Routledge, 2014, pp. 163-183.
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The idea of human security was developed to encourage states and international organizations to direct similar amounts of energy and resources to so-called 'soft issues', such as health, women's issues and child safety, as they would towardsthe more familiar aspects of national security. The concepts has primariliy been applied for developing countries, the 'Global South'. This chapter places the Nordic response to the threat of communicable diseases in the post-Soviet Arctic in a human security framework. This response has involved the introduction of tuberulosis treatment regimes from developing countries. The chapter highltights some of the difficulties in importing both health methods and analytical concepts from the 'Global South' to the post-Soviet Arctic.



Hønneland, Geir
Hvordan skal Putin ta Barentshavet tilbake? ('How Shall Putin Take the Barents Sea Back?')
Trondheim, Akademika, 2013, 152 p. In Norwegian.
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> Read book review in Aftenposten (in Norwegian)
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"How shall Putin take the Barents Sea back?" was the title of a Russian newspaper article in spring 2013. The article provided President Putin with a ten-point roadmap of how to take back those parts of the Barents Sea that fell under Norwegian jurisdiction with the delimitation agreement between Norway and Russia from September 2010, which split the formerly disputed area in two equal parts. Russian critics of the agreement have been vocal ever since the compromise was reached in April 2010. The book explores the ideological foundations of the criticism, tracing century-old Russian images of the West, as well as practical experiences from the fisheries management collaboration between the two states in the Barents Sea.



Korppoo, Anna and Olga Gassan-zade
'Lessons from JI and GIS for Post-2012 Carbon Finance Mechanisms in Russia and Ukraine'
Climate Policy, Vol 14, No 2, 2014, pp. 224-241.
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The Kyoto mechanisms provided Russia and Ukraine with their main incentives for participating in the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol. This article explores what opportunities the anticipated post-2012 mechanisms offer Russia and Ukraine in light of the lessons from Joint Implementation (JI) and the Green Investment Scheme (GIS) during the first Kyoto commitment period. The key factors explaining the success of these mechanisms were identified as 1) design of the mechanism, 2) role of the private sector in its implementation, 3) coordination required, and 4) political will gained. Even though not make or break issues, weak rule of law, problems with policy implementation and the ambiguous role of private sector actors are likely to defer also the future mechanisms. Success and failure rather hinge on the priority they are accorded by the top leadership. Regardless, simple mechanisms with few actors involved are likely to be less complicated to set up and run than for instance emissions trading schemes which require a domestic burden sharing. Project-based options in which domestic actors have gained experience may be better suited. However, any lessons prior to the new mechanisms take a clearer shape must be considered as preliminary.



Jørgensen, Jørgen Holten and Geir Hønneland
Russisk politikk ('Russian Politics')
Bergen, Fagbokforlaget, 2013, 272 p. In Norwegian.
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> Read book review by Thomas Sedelius in Nordisk Østforum (in Swedish)

This book gives an introduction to Russia's political and administrative system, and discusses to what extent the word of the Constitution and other major legal frameworks are followed up in practice. Special attention is given to the roles of the President, the Government, including the Ministries and other federal bodies of governance, and the Federal Assembly (the State Duma and the Federation Council). Further, the book covers areas such as centre-region relations, resource management and environmental protection, as well as the media and civil society.



Jensen, Leif Christian and Berit Kristoffersen
'Nord-Norge som ressursprovins. Storpolitik, risiko og virkelighetskamp' ('Northern Norway as a Resource Province. High Politics, Risks and Battles over Reality')
In Svein Jentoft, Jens-Ivar Nergård, Kjell Arne Røvik (eds), Hvor Går Nord-Norge? Politiske Tidslinjer. Stamsund, Orkana Akademisk, 2013, pp. 67-81. In Norwegian.
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In this chapter we discuss how environmental issues are negotiated when Northern Norway, by way of the increased focus on the High North and oil and gas in particular, takes on the features of a political project. Specifically, the chapter identifies certain key trends involving the three decisive forces behind Norway’s policy on the High North: Russia, the climate and oil and gas resources. To round off the chapter we look at the impact of this ambitious national policy at the local level, where the High North will be populated and find its form.



Stokke, Olav Schram
'The Promise of Involvement: Asia in the Arctic'
Strategic Analysis, Vol 37, No 4, 2013, pp. 474-479.
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This article argues that deeper Asian involvement in Arctic affairs can only strengthen international governance efforts in key areas like sustainable development, safety at sea, and environmental protection, whereas the potential drawbacks are modest. I review the main concerns voiced regarding outside influence over Arctic affairs, and then show that effective governance of this region will require active support by non-Arctic states within a range of global institutions. Thereafter I ask whether such support can be generated by deeper non-Arctic involvement in the work of the Arctic Council. The final section summarizes the argument and draws some conclusions relevant to policy decisions by the states involved.



Wegge, Njord
'The EU's Arctic Policy Development - A New European Foreign Policy Area in Development'
Bulletin of International Studies on the Polar Regions (Tongji University, China), Vol 4, No 3, 2013, pp. 21-36.
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The EU is currently reviewing its interests in the High North and has recently started developing an Arctic policy. This article aims at explaining this foreign policy expansion by applying a theoretical framework consisting of three levels: (1) the internal level—viewing EU foreign policy (EFP) as the product of an “organization;” (2) the state level—in specifically accounting for the role played by external actors, primarily states; and (3) the systemic level—viewing the EU and its foreign policy as dependent on structural conditions within the global system. Through interviews, document studies, as well as existing scholarly research, the article identifies impact from all three analytical levels, including how the supranational and member-state level combined has been decisive in shaping the final policy outcome. The research identifies the crucial role played by other Arctic states, particularly Canada and Norway. Finally, on the systemic level, key conditions such as global warming and economic forces are recognized as relevant explanatory factors behind the development of the EU’s Arctic policy.



Fermann, Gunnar and Tor Håkon Inderberg
'Den norske håndteringen av Elektron-saken 2005: Kompetansestrid og kompetent realpolitikk' ('The Norwegian Handling of the Electron Incident in 2005')
In Gunnar Fermann (ed), Utenrikspolitikk og norsk krisehåndtering. Oslo, Cappelen Damm Akademisk, 2013, pp. 231-265. In Norwegian.
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The chapter analyses the Norwegian handling of the foreign policy crisis of the Electron Case in 2005. Resting on a solid foreign policy theoretical foundation both from within the state aparatus and external to this, it explains considerations and reasons for Norwegian actual and official behaviour in the management of the incident.



Kryukov, Valeriy and Arild Moe
'The Russian Gas Sector'
In Michael Alexeev and Shlomo Weber (eds), The Oxford Handbook of the Russian Economy. New York, Oxford University Press, 2013, pp. 363-382.
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The institutional structure of the sector evolved as a consequence of natural conditions as well as the principles of the centrally planned economy. The industry was transformed to one company in the 1990s while retaining many of the characteristics of the previous state structure. An important issue is how the company Gazprom continued to play a vital economic and social role for the government and in exchange was granted extensive monopoly privileges. The low pricing of gas is closely connected to the social and economic role gas has played, but by using gas to subsidize other parts of the economy, the government has left the gas industry under-financed for years. There are efforts to raise prices but the impact of price increases is uncertain due to the monopolized sector structure. This discussion is closely connected to gas sector reform. Comprehensive reform has been proposed, but always rejected. Nevertheless cost increases and the state’s revenue needs are drivers for change. There are increasing contradictions between developments in the resource base and the structure of the industry.



Kryukov, Valeriy and Arild Moe
'The Russian Oil Sector'
In Michael Alexeev and Shlomo Weber (eds), The Oxford Handbook of the Russian Economy. New York, Oxford University Press, 2013, pp. 341-362.
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This chapter analyses the development of the Russian oil sector with a particular view to dynamics between resource base, institutions and regulations, and the industry structure as it has evolved since the late soviet period. The path dependence in the development of the Russian oil sector is evident and constrains further reforms. This concerns the technological structure and fixed assets formed under central planning that still limit the applicability of market mechanisms. Also today’s industry structure has its roots in the organizations of the Soviet oil industry. The ownership pattern and modes of operation of the oil companies were, however, to a large extent formed in the second half of the 1990s, a period characterized by a very weak state and absence of a resource management policy. The present structure and policies do not match developments in the resource base, something that will constitute an increasing problem in the years ahead.



Moe, Arild
'Potential Arctic Oil and Gas Development: What Are Realistic Expectations?'
In Oran Young, Jong Deog Kim and Yoon Hyung Kim (eds), The Arctic in World Affairs: A North Pacific Dialogue on Arctic Marine Issues. Seoul/Honolulu, Korea Maritime Institute/East-West Center, 2012, pp. 227-250.
> More information about the book

Most of the petroleum resources in the Arctic are undiscovered. Extensive exploration is needed before major production is underway. The resources are firmly under national jurisdiction and there is little risk for inter-state conflict between Arctic states over resource rights. The global gas supply and accompanying price expectations have changed the commercial outlook for Arctic gas dramatically. Prices in. the North Pacific may not justify development. In the case of oil the price is determined by the world market, and margins seem sufficient. Production from oil fields already licensed or expected to be licensed in Russia as well as Norway will probably increase significantly from the mid-2020s. Projects will be export oriented and volumes will be available to buyers willing to pay the price. For Arctic energy to be a viable option of significance for the North Pacific a stable framework for shipping and investments in infrastructure as well as ships is required.



Rottem, Svein Vigeland
'The Arctic Council and the Search and Rescue Agreement: The case of Norway'
Polar Record, published online 13.05.2013, 9 pp.
> Download full-text version (PDF) or access it at the website of the copyright holder (Cambridge University Press)

At the 12 May 2011 Seventh Ministerial Meeting, the member States of the Arctic Council signed the Arctic SAR Agreement, the first legally binding agreement negotiated under the auspices of the Arctic Council. Its objective is to strengthen search and rescue cooperation and coordination in the Arctic. The purpose of the article is to explore why an agreement on search and rescue under the auspices of the Arctic Council has been negotiated; what its key features are; and lastly, how it is and will be implemented. It is argued that the SAR Agreement is more important for the Arctic Council than for Norway. It has had limited practical consequences in Norway. The Agreement may be politically and symbolically significant but it has neither financially nor organizationally changed Norwegian search and rescue policy.



Gabriel, Steven A., Arild Moe, Knut Einar Rosendahl and Marina Tsygankova
'The Likelihood and Potential Implications of a Natural Gas Cartel'
In Roger Fouquet (ed), Handbook on Energy and Climate Change. Cheltenham (UK), Edward Elgar, 2013, pp. 86-102.
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The chapter discusses the prospects for a natural gas cartel, taking the Gas Exporting Countries Forum (GECF) as point of departure. We consider the GECF countries’ position in the current gas market, comparing them with the OPEC countries. Gas markets have certain characteristics that differ from the oil market, and these are important to assess as well. A prerequisite for turning any constellation of gas-exporting countries into a gas cartel is that it is sufficiently profitable to coordinate action. We discuss this in light of simulation results, using a large scale model for international gas markets. Moreover, the potential market implications of a gas cartel are considered. The biggest gas exporter in the world is Russia, which also holds the largest share of global gas reserves. Russia is one of the key GECF members, and its position vis- à- vis cartelization will to a large degree determine whether or not, and in what form, a gas cartel will appear.



Moe, Arild
'Norway and Russia: Neighbours with Strong Interests in the Arctic'
In Hooman Peimani (ed), Energy Security and Geopolitics in the Arctic. Singapore, World Scientific Publishing, 2013, pp. 127-163.
> More information about the chapter and book

The chapter presents and discusses main characteristics of Norwegian and Russian offshore petroleum policy in the Arctic and the relationship between the two countries in this sphere. The stability of the jurisdictional arrangements in the Arctic is of major importance both for the regional peace and security and the development of the Arctic’s mineral and energy resources, particularly oil and gas. The chapter discusses major and recent developments with regard to jurisdiction and delimitation on the Arctic continental shelf: How can the delimitation agreement between Norway and Russia in the Barents Sea be explained, and, what is the outlook for conflict surrounding the Russian claim for an extended shelf in the Arctic Ocean?



Rottem, Svein Vigeland
Sikkerhet i nord - er vi forberedt? ('Security in the North - Are We Prepared?')
Rapport fra Sikkerhetspolitisk konferanse 2012, Oslo, Utenriksdepartementet, 2013, 32 p. In Norwegian.
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The High North is Norway’s most important strategic priority area in the years ahead. In this report a wide range of security issues facing Arctic states are addressed. The report is a product (and a summary) of a conference held in Bodø 25.-26.12 ("Sikkerhet i nord - er vi forberedt?"). The purpose of the conference was to explore defence and security challenges in the region in light of increased political and commercial attention. Most participants argued that there is a good chance for a stable and civilized Arctic. Among the participants were Foreign Minister Espen Barth Eide and Rear Admiral Haakon Bruun-Hanssen.



Hønneland, Geir
'Borderland Russians: Behind the Scenes, before the Sequels'
In G. Hønneland, Borderland Russians: Identity, Narrative and International Relations. Basingstoke & New York, Palgrave Macmillan, 2013, pp. 13-24.
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This is a new introductory chapter to the paperback edition of "Borderland Russians". The chapter provides background to the methodological, theoretical and empirical choices made for the book, and puts the study in a wider theoretical context. In particular, the role of identity and narrative analysis in international relations theory is elaborated on. Such analysis does not aim to explain all aspects of international relations, but rather to circle in 'the bandwidth of possible outcomes'. It also contributes to the discussion of how political actors, and their interests, are constituted. The chapter preaches eclectisism: we should see research traditions as complementary, not competing.



Stokke, Olav Schram
'Political Stability and Multi-Level Governance in the Arctic'
In P.A. Berkman and A.N. Vylegzhanin (eds), Environmental Security in the Arctic Ocean. Berlin, Springer, 2013, pp. 297-312.
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This chapter examines the interplay between regional institutions for governing the Arctic and broader ones applicable in this region and elsewhere. It first points out that despite rapid environmental change in the Arctic, political stability remains high. One reason is that Arctic states have relatively few unsettled maritime boundary issues and manage the remaining ones in a cooperative manner. Another reason is that an international legal framework exists for governing economic use of the region. The framework is based on global, customary international law codified in the United Nations Law of the Sea Convention and obliges states to respond individually and jointly to new challenges deriving from increasing economic activities. The chapter then examines the adequacy of regional means for strengthening the Arctic governance system and finds that regional institutions like the Arctic Council have only partial roles to play – the Arctic Ocean needs multilevel governance. The fact that Arctic environmental challenges cannot be addressed without significant contributions from broader or global institutions, also impinges on the question of how those operating the Arctic Council should deal with the interest among some non-Arctic states to participate in Council work. Important governance functions like generating knowledge on environmental risks and response options, obtaining Arctic-sensitive regulations in broader international fora, and mobilizing resources and legal competence to support rule implementation, will benefit from greater involvement of other interested states. Provision of effective and legitimate governance is the best basis for ensuring political stability in the Arctic.



Stokke, Olav Schram
'Regime Interplay in Arctic Shipping Governance: Explaining Regional Niche Selection'
International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics, Vol 13, No 1, 2013, pp. 65-85.
> Purchase original article here or download post-print version here.

Distinctive institutional features can make a regime particularly suited for conducting one or more generic tasks of governance: building knowledge, strengthening norms, enhancing problem-solving capacity, or enforcing rule compliance. Each of those governance tasks constitutes a potential “niche” that a regime can specialize in within a larger institutional complex. Applying this niche-oriented approach to the case of Arctic marine transport helps to explain the emerging division of labor between regional and global institutions in an issue-area marked by rapid change. Drawing on earlier regime-effectiveness research, the article examines the potential of regional institutions, especially the Arctic Council, to contribute to strengthening the international governance system for shipping, based on the UN International Maritime Organization (IMO). Although the Arctic Council is not well-positioned to regulate regional shipping activities, it may facilitate regulatory advances in the IMO, in part by knowledge-building and in part by helping Arctic states to find common ground on matters of controversy. The Council is also well equipped to enhance regional maritime infrastructure, like capacities for responding to oil spills, and search and rescue operations. Should binding region-specific international rules on Arctic shipping be adopted, Arctic institutions could play a role in coordinating port-state enforcement measures – but existing institutions with broader participation are better suited and will probably remain dominant. The larger question of achieving cross-institutional interplay that can promote effectiveness is relevant in any region or issue-area, because efforts to solve specific problems usually involve more than one institution.



Jensen, Leif Christian
'Seduced and Surrounded by Security: A Post-Structuralist Take on Norwegian High North Securitizing Discourses'
Cooperation and Conflict, Vol 48, No 1, pp. 80-99.
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Combining elements of the Copenhagen school’s securitization theory with a Foucauldian discourse analysis, this article examines certain discursive processes that emerged in the wake of Norway’s 2005 High North Initiative. The Norwegian government’s explicit politicization of energy issues appears to have acted as door opener, letting ‘security’ in to colonize the High North discourses once more. Russia is again firmly positioned as the ‘radical other’, leaving the discursive field open to various forms of securitizing discourses. The post-2005 discursive field of the Northern areas is, in many ways, more open-ended, complex and confusing than ever. The opening up and expansion of the concept of High North security means that ‘everything’ is seen as having a security potential. What does seem clear is the increasing presence of security in policy documents and the media debate: entry to and credibility in the discourse depends on ‘security speak’ across an ever-widening array of thematic contexts. The article also argues that a combination of securitization theory and discourse analysis seems a fruitful way forward in shifting more focus towards the active and important role of the audience in securitizing processes.



Jensen, Leif Christian
Norway on a High in the North: A Discourse Analysis of Policy Framing
Doctoral dissertation, University of Tromsø, 2012, 155 p.
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The purpose of this thesis is to better understand how the Norwegian High North initiative from 2005 is framed through public and official Norwegian discourses. It examines this political undertaking through four distinct nodal points: security, the environment, Russia and natural resources. The dissertation consists of five articles which deal with different aspects of this initiative from thematically different angles and data sources depending on whether there are public or official discourses which were under scrutiny. My aim has been to grasp how Norwegian political constructions affect Norway, the North and the rest of the world. The dissertation contributes theoretically to the discourse literature by identifying, specifying and defining a special form of interdiscursivity: discourse co-optation. It also contributes to the literature on securitization by its focus on the political significance of discourses and the audiences’ active role in processes which involves some form of securitizing moves or even discursive movement towards actual securitization.



Kristoffersen, Berit and Leif Christian Jensen
'Nordområdepolitikken: A license to drill?' ('The Norwegian High North Initiative: A License to Drill?')
Tvergastein, Vol 1, No 2, 2012, pp. 74-80. In Norwegian.
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The article discusses the interrelationship between Russia, the climate and petroleum resources. They are seen as three central driving-forces, or nodal points in the High North Initiative, and are crucial for the Norwgian self-image in the Arctic as an environmental- friendly provider of scarce and strategic resources to the world. The article shows how it has become possible to argue that Norwegian environmental- and climate policy almost coincide with geopolitical and economical interests in the Arctic. The Norwegian High North initiative is important in upholding the Norwegian self-image as a small and unique, but at the same time important, global actor which can make a difference.



Korppoo, Anna and Adnan Vatansever
A Climate Vision for Russia: From Rhetoric to Action
Carnegie Policy Outlook. Washington DC, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, August 2012, 16 p.
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> Russian version

Regardless of many benefits available to Russia from adopting a more practical approach to climate mitigation, the country remains on the outskirts of the international climate policy debate - an important element of foreign policy in this decade. Russian leaders tend to point to the post-Soviet decline of Russia’s greenhouse gas emissions as a major contribution to global climate mitigation efforts. Yet, because the country’s carbon intensity remains very high, that stance undermines Russia’s role as a serious global climate actor.



Århus, Torstein Vik
Maritim mistru og petroleumspartnarskap: Ein diskursanalyse av russiske reaksjonar på norsk nordområdepolitikk ('Maritime Mistrust and Petroleum Partnership: A Discourse Analysis of Russian Reactions to Norwegian High North Policies')
FNI Report 08/2012. Lysaker, FNI, 2012, 84 p. In Norwegian.
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This report is a discourse analysis based on 307 articles from a variety of Russian news sources, and sheds light on the tensions between two discourses concerning Norway. In these two discourses, Norway is presented as either a competitor/opponent or a role model and potential partner. This division between these discourses became very clear with the debate regarding the agreement on the Norwegian-Russian demarcation line in the Barents Sea in 2010. The Norwegian High North policy concept is also something that cannot be seen in Russian press coverage, which covers Norwegian policy on a more thematic basis than the High North as a whole as can be seen in Norwegian press coverage. The tension between the pictures of Norway as either a competitor or as a role model can also be seen in a wider context as a part of the great question in Russian history regarding Russia’s place in Europe.



Hønneland, Geir
'Norsk-russisk miljø- og ressursforvaltning i nordområdene' ('Norwegian-Russian Environmental and Resource Management in the High North')
Nordlit, Vol 29, No 1, 2012, pp. 79-87. In Norwegian.
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Since the end of the Cold War, a flourishing network of collaboration has grown up between Russia and neighbouring Nordic countries in the European North, especially Norway. The Barents Euro-Arctic Region (BEAR) was established in 1993 by several North European states and regional administrative entities in Norway, Sweden, Finland and Russia. Its aim is to promote relations across the old East-West divide in the European North, and enable joint projects in a number of areas, including trade and industry, student exchange and indigenous issues. In addition, Russia and Norway are pursuing various bilateral schemes focused on a particular problem or challenge in the North. One of them is the Joint Norwegian-Russian Fisheries Commission, which manages the valuable fish resources in the Barents Sea. In various bilateral and multilateral partnerships, Norway is working to address the environmental problems on the Kola Peninsula. This article gives a brief overview of these cooperative arrangements.



Hønneland, Geir
'Internasjonalt samarbeid i nordområdene' ('International Collaboration in the High North')
In Mot Nord. Oslo, Europabevegelsen, 2012, pp. 42-49. In Norwegian.

The article reviews international collaboration arrangements in the High North. I t argues that the High North has become increasingly important for Norwegian foreign policy, and that international collaboration has become increasingly important for the High North. The article brings empirical examples from multilateral cooperative arrangements, primarily the Euro-Arctic Barents Region, and from bilateral arrangements between Norway and Russian in the High North, such as the joint Norwegian-Russian commissions on fisheries management, environmental protection and nuclear safety.



Korppoo, Anna and Thomas Spencer
'Russia's Energy Security and Emission Trends: Synergies and Contradictions'
In Luca Anchesi and Jonathan Symons (eds), Energy Security in the Era of Climate Change. Chippenham & Eastbourne (UK), Palgrave Macmillan, 2012, pp. 143-160.
> More information about the book at the publisher's website

Energy security policy rather than climate policies drives Russia's greenhouse gas emissions. In most cases the energy security and mitigation interests go hand in hand, however, there are examples of the opposite. The poor track record of policy implementation in Russia is also an important factor to take into account when analysis such synergies.



Korppoo, Anna and Nina Korobova
'Modernizing Residential Heating in Russia: End-use Practices, Legal Developments and Future Prospects'
Energy Policy, Vol 42, March 2012, pp. 213-220.
> Purchase the original article here or download the post-print version here

This article explores the significance of modernization policies concerning Russia’s technically obsolete but socially important residential heating sector, focusing on the 2009 energy efficiency framework law and its prospects for implementation. Ownership and control structures are in flux throughout the heating sector chain. Inefficiencies, causing low service quality and rising prices, have already started eroding the market share of district heating, despite its potential benefits. End-use management practices – such as lack of metering, communal billing and low prices that do not cover production costs – reduce consumer incentives to cut consumption. The diversity of end-users adds to the complexity of focused measures like energy-saving contracts. However, end-use sector reforms such as mandatory meter installation and increasing prices –even if socially acceptable and fully implemented – cannot alone provide the massive investments required. More appropriate is sector-wide reform with the government’s financial participation – especially if consumer efforts can yield better service quality.



Stokke, Olav Schram
'Environmental Security in the Arctic: The Case for Multi-Level Governance'
International Journal, Vol 64, No 4, 2011, pp. 835-848.
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Despite the rapid regional changes associated with global warming, the environmental security of the Arctic is satisfactory. Three stabilizers explain this situation. Economically, substantial continuity characterizes the conditions which so far have limited the accessibility and commercial viability of Arctic resources and navigation routes. Politically, the Arctic states have relatively few unsettled maritime boundary issues, and they manage the remaining ones in a cooperative manner. Legally, a globally accepted legal framework exists for governing the economic use of the region. That framework is based on customary international law as codified in the United Nations Law of the Sea Convention and is capable of responding flexibly to new challenges emanating from increasing economic activities. Regulatory dynamism is called for, but regional means such as the Arctic Council have only partial roles to play in strengthening the system for governing regional activities – what the Arctic needs is multilevel governance. This finding has implications for the question of wider involvement of non-Arctic states in Council work. Provision of effective and legitimate governance is the best basis for ensuring continued environmental security in the Arctic.



Hønneland, Geir
Arktiske utfordringer ('Arctic Challenges')
Kristiansand, Høyskoleforlaget, 2012, 139 p. In Norwegian.
> For orders, contact Høyskoleforlaget

The Arctic has heatend up, in different ways. The ice is melting and scientists are uncertain about how this will affect the Arctic ecosystems. At the same time, the Arctic is the object of heated political discussion: Who shall extract the oil when the ice disappears? How are marine delimitation lines established? Who will control the new sea routes that are opening up? Who actually owns the Arctic? The book provides a balanced introduction to the most important challenges in the Arctic, with a particular focus on the environment, natural resources and energy. It also presents the political institutions that have been set up to coordinate international relations in the region, within the frameworks of international law.



Jensen, Leif Christian
'Norwegian petroleum extraction in Arctic waters to save the environment: introducing ‘discourse co-optation’ as a new analytical term'
Critical Discourse Studies, Vol 9, No 1, 2012, pp. 29-38.
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In this article, the term discourse co-optation is introduced based on a socially oriented discourse analysis of the Norwegian petroleum debate concerning petroleum extraction in the Barents Sea. The introduction of the term is based on empirical findings from two different studies of public discourse through four Norwegian newspapers published between 2000 and 2006. Discourse co-optation describes how one discourse ‘burrows into the heart’ of a counter-discourse, turns its logic upside down and it is put to work to re-establish hegemony and re-gain political support. One discourse is strengthened by the addition of a new, powerful argument; the other is weakened almost to the same degree.



Moe, Arild, Daniel Fjærtoft and Indra Øverland
'Space and Timing: 'Why was the Barents Sea Delimitation Dispute Resolved in 2010?'
Polar Geography, Vol 34, No 3, 2011, pp. 145-162
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An explanation of the timing of the 2010 agreement resolving the marine delimitation dispute between Norway and Russia in the Barents Sea must be sought mainly on the Russian side. Russia's willingness to compromise on the spatial disagreement between the two countries at this specific juncture was not,as sometimes assumed, driven by a thirst for the energy resources in the formerly disputed area, but instead by broader Russian foreign policy considerations. These include a general effort to reduce the risk of conflicts with neighboring states by clearing away as many territorial disputes as possible, the intention to improve Russia's image as a rule-abiding player on the international arena, and interest in strengthening the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea as the framework for Arctic governance.



Fauchald, Ole Kristian
'Regulatory Frameworks for Maritime Transport in the Arctic: Will a Polar Code Contribute to Resolve Conflicting Interests?'
In John Grue and Roy H. Gabrielsen (eds), Marine Transport in the High North. Oslo, Novus Forlag, 2011, pp. 73-91.
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This chapter discusses the ability of Norway as a coastal state to regulate maritime transport in the Arctic in light of the major interests associated with such transportation. As a coastal state heavily dependent on marine resources, Norway has significant interests in protecting the environment against damages from maritime accidents and pollution from maritime transport activities. But Norway does also promote other interests. As an important flag state, Norway defends the freedom of navigation. As a country with an open economy depending on international trade, Norway has a strong interest in cost effective maritime transportation.This chapter first discusses Norwegian jurisdiction under the current international regime in the Arctic. Thereafter follows an assessment of how Norway’s regulatory jurisdiction may be affected by negotiation and adoption of a binding Polar Code. The final part of the contribution considers how Norway can ensure an appropriate balance of the interests should the negotiations of a Polar Code fail to provide appropriate results within a reasonable time frame.



Moe, Arild
'Energeticheskie strategii Rossii i Norvegii v Barentsevom more' ('Russian and Norwegian Energy Strategies in the Barents Sea')
In N.A. Simoniya (ed), Arktika - Interesy Rossii: Energetika, Ekologiya. Moscow, EkoPolitika, 2011, pp. 71-104. In Russian.

Norway and Russia are both moving petroleum activities into the Barents Sea. The Norwegian activities have been characterized by an industry eager to participate, but ready to withdraw in adverse commercial conditions, and authorities supporting enterprise, whilst imposing strong restrictions. Russia still does not have a coherent policy for offshore development. The prioritization of state goals is unresolved, and the division of functions between state organs and state companies unclear. Private and foreign interests are kept at arm’s length. There is still great uncertainty regarding the timing and pace of development,as well as the development concepts involved. The relationship between Russia and Norway in the energy sphere has been peaceful and cooperative,despite the jurisdictional dispute in the Barents Sea. The delimitation agreement improves the atmosphere further, and means that a promising area could be opened for petroleum activities and possibly joint exploration of deposits crossing the new boundary line.

This is a translated and slightly revised version of the article 'Russian and Norwegian Petroleum Strategies in the Barents Sea' published in Arctic Review on Law and Politics, Vol 1, No 2, 2010, pp. 225-248.



Stokke, Olav Schram
'Interplay Management, Niche Selection, and Arctic Environmental Governance'
In Sebastian Oberthür and Olav Schram Stokke (eds), Managing Institutional Complexity: Regime Interplay and Global Environmental Change. Cambridge (USA), MIT Press, 2011, pp. 143-170.
> More information about the book at the publisher's website

The framework developed in this chapter for analyzing interplay management in institutional complexes delineates four governance niches and helps to identify conditions for occupying them effectively - that is, in a way that supports overall problem solving. Applying the notion of institutional niches to four cases of Arctic environmental governance helps to identify distinctive features that can equip an institution particularly well for conducting the related tasks. I first link the notion of institutional niches to certain general tasks of governance: building knowledge, creating norms, enhancing capacity, and enforcing compliance. The four areas of Arctic governance in focus are transboundary air pollution, marine contamination, hazardous waste treatment, and fisheries management.



Jensen, Leif Christian, Øystein Jensen and Svein Vigeland Rottem
'Norwegian Foreign Policy in the High North: Energy, International Law and Security'
Atlantisch Perspectief, Vol 35, No 3, 2011, pp. 15-19.
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This short article portrays and discusses the perceived main challenges facing Norway in the European Arctic in the short- and middle-long term. The analysis is based on official Norwegian documents and statements, which we let represent 'Norwegian perceptions'. We apply a discursive perspective to the challenges and issues facing the Norwegian government in the European Arctic. We identify three main issue areas which function as nodal points for the official Norwegian discourse. These are: Resource and environmental management, low tension and law of the sea, preserve and protect sovereignty. Our aim is to shed light on the Norwegian reality, including perceptions of challenges, opportunities and priorities in the European Arctic. We assume these perspectives on a Norwegian reality will be seen as interesting and relevant to hold up against "French perceptions" or perhaps even "European perceptions" - if there is such a thing as a European perception - of this rich, (still) ice-covered wasteland on top of the world.



Jensen, Leif Christian and Geir Hønneland
'Framing the High North: Public Discourses in Norway after 2000'
Acta Borealia, Vol 8, No 1, 2011, pp. 37-54.
> Purchase the original article here or download the post-print version here

The article presents an overview of the main public debates in Norway that can be said to have framed and defined the High North since the turn of the millennium. It is based on a qualitative study of over 3000 articles published in four Norwegian newspapers issued between 2000 and 2006. Our discussion is structured around three overarching, interconnected narratives we think capture the essence of the Norwegian public discourses on the High North between 2000 and 2006. These are Fragments from the 1990s; The great narrative of the High North; and Mixing cold water with hot blood: The first half of the 2000s is characterised by an almost total absence of the High North as a discursive and politically coherent concept. From 2004, however, usage grew fivefold, alongside an extensive, dynamic discursive mobilisation. When the Russians decided in 2006 to shelve the Shtokman project and critical voices were heard condemning Norway¡¦s environmental performance in northwest Russia, public opinion swung back again. A feeling of cold reality replaced the sense of optimism towards the energy potential of the north, and an exercise in collective soul-searching commenced ƒ{ similar to that of the early years of the decade. We believe the type of discursive change we document in this article constitutes policy trends both in connection with the High North and other sectors where policy is subject to intense public debate and appraisal.



Hønneland, Geir
'Kompromiss als Routine: Russisch-Norwegische Konfliktlösung in der Barentssee' ('Compromise as Routine: Russian-Norwegian Conflict Resolution in the Barents Sea')
In 'Logbuch Arktis', Osteuropa, Vol 61, Nos 2-3, 2011, pp. 257-269. In German.
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The article discusses whether Norway's and Russia's 'bargaining experience' in the Barents Sea might have furthered the conclusion of the 2010 delimitation agreement between the two countries. Leaning on institutional theory about how bureaucratic procedures evolve into standard operating procedures, I ask whether the continuous bargaining between Norway and Russia in the Barents Sea over fisheries management and the protection of the marine environment might have accustomed the parties to reaching agreement. Is there evidence that entering compromises has become the ‘standard operating procedure’, even when the parties’ principal positions do not conform?



Hønneland, Geir
'East-West Collaboration in the European North: Structures and Perceptions'
International Journal, Vol 65, No 4, 2010, pp. 837-850.
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Since the end of the Cold War, a flourishing network of collaboration has grown up between Russia and neighbouring Nordic countries in the European North. The Barents Euro-Arctic Region (BEAR) was established in 1993 by several North European states and regional administrative entities in Norway, Sweden, Finland and Russia. Its aim is to promote relations across the old East-West divide in the European North, and enable joint projects in a number of areas, including trade and industry, student exchange and indigenous issues. In addition, Russia and the Nordic countries are pursuing various bilateral schemes focused on a particular problem or challenge in the North. One of them is the Joint Norwegian-Russian Fisheries Commission, which manages the valuable fish resources in the Barents Sea. In various bilateral and multilateral partnerships, Western states are working to address the environmental problems on the Kola Peninsula. This article gives a brief overview of these cooperative arrangements and Russian perceptions of them.



Moe, Arild
'Russian and Norwegian Petroleum Strategies in the Barents Sea'
Arctic Review on Law and Politics, Vol 1, No 2, 2010, pp. 225-248.
> Download article

Norway and Russia are both moving petroleum activities into the Barents Sea. The Norwegian activities have been characterized by an industry eager to participate, but ready to withdraw in adverse commercial conditions, and authorities supporting enterprise, whilst imposing strong restrictions. Russia still does not have a coherent policy for offshore development. The prioritization of state goals is unresolved, and the division of functions between state organs and state companies unclear. Private and foreign interests are kept at arm’s length. There is still great uncertainty regarding the timing and pace of development,as well as the development concepts involved. The relationship between Russia and Norway in the energy sphere has been peaceful and cooperative,despite the jurisdictional dispute in the Barents Sea. The delimitation agreement improves the atmosphere further, and means that a promising area could be opened for petroleum activities and possibly joint exploration of deposits crossing the new boundary line.

This article has also been published in Russian, in a slightly revised version.



Stokke, Olav Schram
'Barents Sea Fisheries: The IUU Struggle'
Arctic Review on Law and Politics, Vol 1, No 2, 2010, pp. 207-224.
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Considerable fishing operations occur in the European part of the Arctic Ocean, especially in waters under Norwegian and Russian jurisdiction, and regional states have recently made important advances in combating illegal, unreported, and unregulated (IUU) fishing. During the 2000s, illegal harvesting of Northeast Arctic cod reached levels that jeopardized stock sustainability and coastal-state quota restraint, shifted wealth from legal fishers to cheaters, and promoted corrupt practices in production and distribution chains. A strengthening of various port-state measures appears promising for combating illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing in the region. Such measures have evolved from unilateral refusal to allow landing of fish taken outside international quota arrangements to a multilateral Scheme of Control and Enforcement under the North-East Atlantic Fisheries Commission (NEAFC).



Skedsmo, Pål Wilter
Russisk sivilsamfunn og norske hjelpere ('Russian Civil Society and its Norwegian Benefactors')
Trondheim, Tapir Academic Press, 2010, 100 p. In Norwegian.
> For orders, contact Akademika Forlag or download information sheet

After the collapse of the Soviet Union, Norwegian support to the emerging Russian civil society has been quite extensive. Norwegian organisations have especially been involved in projects in the Russian part of the Barents region. Many Russian environmental and human rights organisations depend heavily on its foreign donors and partners, and faces resistance at home. This book discusses the rationale behind supporting Russian civil society and how various Norwegian financed projects have developed. Do these projects lead to the empowerment and independence sought for among its Russian partners, or in fact a kind of dependency? The book also discusses how the relationships between Russian civil society and Russian authorities have developed in a setting where foreign funded organisations quite often are accused of promoting foreign interests. Given this context the book also discusses whether and in what form continued Norwegian support for Russian civil society might be developed.



Jørgensen, Jørgen Holten
Russisk svalbardpolitikk: Svalbard sett fra den andre siden ('Russian Politics on Spitsbergen: Spitsbergen Seen from the Other Side')
Trondheim, Tapir Academic Press, 2010, 100 p. In Norwegian.
> For orders, contact Akademika Forlag or download information sheet

In no other places do Norway and Russia meet so closely and intensely as on Spitsbergen. A Russian community under Norwegian jurisdiction is indeed one of the peculiar characters of Svalbard, offering particular challenges for both sides. Russia has for long had a significant presence on Spitsbergen, and the mining town of Barentsburg is for the Russians more than just a curious reminder of the Soviet past. Despite its geographical location far up in the Arctic Ocean, Spitsbergen is a place where high politics and international law issues still are under debate. Do Norwegian environment regulations violate the free and unhindered access principles set by the Spitsbergen Treaty? Who has the jurisdiction to arrest Russian trawlers in the Fishery Protection Zone? These questions are understood differently in Russia than in Norway, which is reflected in Russia's politics on the archipelago. As opposed to most other books on Spitsbergen, this book takes as a point of departure the Russian view on Spitsbergen and aims at exploring the political and economic factors that justify the Russian presence on Spitsbergen and in the surrounding waters, with and emphasis on the period after the collapse of the Soviet Union.



Moe, Arild and Øystein Jensen
Opening of New Arctic Shipping Routes
Standard Briefing. Brussels, Directorate-General for External Policies of the Union, European Parliament, 2010, 16p.

Neither the Northwest nor the Northeast Passage has so far become important in international shipping. Nevertheless, the prospects should be re-assessed in light of new circumstances in the Arctic, especially the changing ice situation which makes it possible to envisage a future with drastically increased shipping activity. This paper argues, however, that developments on the two sea routes in question today are not straight forward. In the case of the Northwest Passage, ice problems are expected to remain a major limiting factor for many years and the Canadian authorities are not actively promoting international usage of the route, something which is partly related to legal controversies over the status of the passage. In the case of the Northeast Passage, Russia actively advertises its Northern Sea Route, seeing rapidly improving ice conditions. However, the commercial conditions remain uncertain and necessary investments in icebreakers and infrastructure are so far missing. The Northern Sea Route may, besides its regional usage, especially in the western part, have the potential for limited transits in the most favourable season. The Russian vision of year-round transit traffic seems quite unrealistic within the perspective of this decade.



Moe, Arild
'Russisk rulett' ('Russian Roulette')
In Arbo, Peter and Bjørn Hersoug (eds), Oljevirksomhetens inntog i nord: Næringsutvikling, politikk og samfunn. Oslo, Gyldendal Akademisk, 2010, pp. 282-304. In Norwegian.
> For more information and orders, see Gyldendal's website

The Russian part of the Barents sea is considered a very promising petroleum region and several important discoveries have been made. The exploration activity has nevertheless been limited and announced licensing rounds have not been implemented. Thus there is no offshore production in this ocean yet. The article reviews and explains developments by discussing the interests of the Russian industry, weaknesses in the regulatory framework and overall priorities. In the last few years Arctic offshore has gained a much more prominent position among Russian energy policy goals, but contradictions with other goals limit the effectiveness of offshore policies. Particular attention is given to the Prirazlomnoye oil project which has met many problems and the prospects for realisation of the Shtokman gas project - and its implications for Norway.



Jensen, Leif Christian
'Norsk oljeboring for å hjelpe miljøet: Diskurskooptering som nytt analytisk begrep' ('Norwegian Oil Drilling to Help the Environment: Introducing "Discourse Cooptation" as a New Analytical Term').
Norsk Statsvitenskapelig Tidsskrift, Vol 26, No 3, 2010, pp. 185-203. In Norwegian.
> Purchase the original article here or download the post-print version here

In this article, the term «discourse-cooptation» is introduced based on an empiric phenomenon discovered in a discourse analysis of the Norwegian petroleum debate concerning petroleum extraction in the Barents Sea. The phenomenon in question is how a discourse [drilling for the environment] in a discursive battle enters the core of the opposing discourse [no to drilling], turning its logic on its head into a core component of its own make up. One discourse is left with a new powerful component, while the other seems proportionally weakened, not unlike the logic in a classic zero-sum game: The «aggressive» discourse is not only strengthened in absolute terms, it has gained relative to the other. The article draws on cooptation in general and cooptive processes in Norway more specifically to present the following definition: Discourse cooptation describes how a discourse enters the core of another discourse in a discursive battle, turns its logic on its head, which creates a new line of reasoning, and contributes to reestablishing hegemony and political support.



Hønneland, Geir
Borderland Russians: Identity, Narrative and International Relations
Hardback version: Basingstoke/New York, Palgrave Macmillan, 2010, 208 p.
Revised, paperback version: Basingstoke/New York, Palgrave Macmillan, 2013, 200 p.
> For orders, contact Palgrave Macmillan
> See related FNI News article
> See book review in Polar Record
> See book review in Arctic Review on Law and Politics

The book discusses some of the big questions in social science: What is identity? How is it narrated by subjects? What is the role of identity and narrative in the study of international relations? The location is the Kola Peninsula, the most heavily militarized area of the world during the Cold War, now set to become Europe's next big oil playground. The author looks at how living close to the border affects people, and whether borderland people are different from other people. Above all, he asks empirical questions about identities in a specific geographic location, discussing what it means to be Russian, what it means to be a northerner and how people in Russia's north-western corner define themselves in relation to their Scandinavian neighbours and their southern relatives. This is a book about the nature of borderland Russians - living in the high north, hailing from the south, with Western neighbours within throwing distance across an increasingly permeable border.



Tvedt, Morten Walløe
'Patent law and bioprospecting in Antarctica'
Polar Record, Vol 47, No 1, 2010, pp. 46-55
> Download full-text article

The number of patents and patent applications related to inventions based on biological material from the Antarctic is increasing. Bioprospecting in the Antarctic is happening with no explicit regulation of property rights or benefit sharing requirements. This leaves patent law as the only legal system to establish exclusive rights to genes, bacteria, and other biological material found in the Antarctic. Patent law is general in form and is applied to all areas of invention with very few adaptations to single fields of innovation. Therefore, it is interesting to identify the issues in patent law in cases in which the biological material from the Antarctic is likely to create challenges or loopholes. The aim of this article is to couple the understanding of this particular legal regime and of biological circumstances in the Antarctic with knowledge of the international patent system for the purpose of contributing to the work of the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meetings (ATCMs) regarding bioprospecting in the Antarctic.



Rottem, Svein Vigeland
'Klima og sikkerhet i Arktis' ('Climate and Security in the Arctic')
Internasjonal Politikk, Vol 68, No 2, 2010, pp. 183-204. In Norwegian.
> Purchase full-text article

The Arctic and High North are enjoying a renaissance. According to some observers interest in the region’s natural resources could take on a military aspect. As the receding ice cap initiates a run for possession of whatever natural resources lie beneath the Arctic Ocean, will it bring us to the brink of a new Cold War? Will unresolved legal issues and deteriorating foreign relations in the wake of climate change create the conditions for armed conflict rather than diplomatic resolution? In this article, climate change, socio-economic consequences and questions of security are addressed. The purpose is to show that a fruitful analysis of security policy challenges in the north must rest on an insight into the international legal framework on which co-existence in the region rests, the variability in climate change projections, socio-economic challenges and opportunities and a sober realpolitik analysis. The article concludes that a description of the situation as «an armed mad dash for resources» seems rather overdrawn.



Jensen, Leif Christian and Pål Wilter Skedsmo
'Approaching the North: Norwegian and Russian Foreign Policy Discourses on the European Arctic'
Polar Research, Vol 29, 2010, pp. 439-450.
> Purchase full-text article

The aim of this article is to identify Norwegian and Russian official foreign policy discourses on the European Arctic, and how perceived challenges are understood, framed and presented by the governments in their respective countries. The article makes use of discourse analysis to grasp how the Norwegian "High North" strategy is framed by the Norwegian government and, likewise, how the Russian approach to the European Arctic is framed by the Russian government. The empirical foundation is a study of primary texts such as white papers, official reports, speeches and strategies. We find that the Norwegian approach to the High North features in a powerful official discourse resulting from a robust and broad domestic discursive mobilization. The Russian approach is that of an increasingly assertive nation for which the zero-sum game and relative gains seem to be the main rationale, judging by the official discourse. The Russian approach is not as coherent or based on a broad discursive mobilization as in Norway's case. However, as the countries have some important common frames of references, a favourable climate for extended future cooperation could be further developed.



Rowe, Lars and Geir Hønneland
'Norge og Russland: Tilbake til normaltilstanden' ('Norway and Russia: Back to Normality')
Nordisk Østforum, Vol 24, No 2, 2010, pp. 133-147. In Norwegian.
> Purchase the original article here or download the post-print version here

The Norwegian-Russian relationship from the time of the Soviet collapse in 1991 to the present is discussed in this article. It is argued, in a historical perspective, that the 1990s must be understood as an anomaly or, alternatively, a state of emergency. With the post-Soviet economy in ruins, previously unthinkable opportunities began to open up. It is asserted that this state of emergency has now come to an end. Assisted by soaring petroleum prices, President Vladimir Putin was able to lead his country out of the transitional misery and towards what he, and the average Russian, would perceive as Russia’s rightful place in international politics. Although this is a well-known fact, it is evident that some sectors of the Norwegian public and foreign aid establishment are still stuck in the 1990s in their perception of Russia. We therefore recommend that all projects involving Norwegian aid to Russian recipients be terminated.



Hønneland, Geir and Lars Rowe
'Hva er nordområdepolitikk? Utfordringer innenrikspolitisk, i nærområdene og globalt' ('High North Politics: What Is It? Domestic, Regional and Global Challenges')
Plan, No 2, 2010, pp. 10-15. In Norwegian.
> Purchase the original article here or or download the post-print version here

This article examines the developing meaning of the term "Nordområdepolitikk" ("High North politics"), a catchphrase of recent Norwegian politics. The term was not widely used in the early 2000s, and then only in a security policy context. A few years later, the term was used everywhere, related to topics as diverse as environmental monitoring, culture, bioprospecting and education. But foreign policy always looms in the background.



Moe, Arild and Valery Kryukov
'Oil Exploration in Russia: Prospects for Reforming a Crucial Sector'
Eurasian Geography and Economics, Vol 51, No 3, 2010, pp. 312-329.
> Access full-text version here (subscribers only)

The article analyses Russia’s policy response to developments in its mineral resources base (often perceived as an exploration crisis), with a focus on oil. The authors review and discuss trends in exploration (including its organization and efficiency), recent developments in its financing, and the reorganization of exploration activity. The evolution of Russia’s licensing system is presented, drawing attention to changes that have affected incentives, risks, and barriers to potential resource users, both Russian and foreign. Also identified are conflicts between the objectives of resource managers and broader political goals and interests.



Jensen, Leif Christian, Øystein Jensen and Svein Vigeland Rottem
'Sitting on Top of the World: The Arctic Seen through Norwegian Lenses'
In Viviane du Castel (ed), Le Grand Nord: Un nouvel enjeu trés courtisé. L'exemple de la mer de Barents, Norvége. Paris, L'Harmattan, 2010, pp. 19-30.
> For more information and orders, see L'Harmattan's website

The chapter portrays and discusses the perceived main challenges facing Norway in the European Arctic in the short- and middle-long term. The analysis is based on official Norwegian documents and statements, which we let represent 'Norwegian perceptions'. We apply a discursive, Foucauldian perspective to the challenges and issues facing the Norwegian government in the European Arctic. We identify three main issue areas which function as nodal points for the official Norwegian discourse. These are: Resource and environmental management, low tension and law of the sea, preserve and protect sovereignty. Our aim is to shed light on the Norwegian reality, including perceptions of challenges, opportunities and priorities in the European Arctic. We assume these perspectives on a Norwegian reality will be seen as interesting and relevant to hold up against "French perceptions" or perhaps even "European perceptions" - if there is such a thing as a European perception - of this rich, (still) ice-covered wasteland on top of the world.



Offerdal, Kristine
'Arctic Energy in EU Policy: Arbitrary Interest in the Norwegian High North'
Arctic, Vol 63, No 1, 2010, pp. 30-42.
> Download full-text version

In challenging times for European energy security, the European Union (EU) is seeking to extend its energy policy powers. At the same time, with its message that the High North represents diversification away from less stable energy regions, Norway is trying to get attention in Brussels. This article inquires into the place of Norway and its Arctic oil and gas in the processes of developing an Energy Policy for Europe and the Northern Dimension Initiative. Central questions to be addressed are whether Norwegian Arctic areas are emerging as a new energy region to rely on for diversified oil and gas imports for the European Union, and whether Norway, as a small state but a major energy exporter with a considerable part of the Barents Sea shelf, is able to take advantage of this position in its diplomatic relations with Brussels. The study shows that Norway has managed to use its Arctic oil and gas to create awareness of the Norwegian High North in Brussels between 2006 and 2008, but these efforts have not resulted in more active political interest on the part of the EU. A combination of institutional confusion in the EU, lack of coherence and clarity in the Norwegian High North initiative, and Norway’s established reputation as an energy supplier place important constraints on the prospects for more concrete political attention from the EU, and thus on Norway’s ability to take advantage of its High North oil and gas in a foreign policy context.



Hønneland, Geir and Lars Rowe
Nordområdene – hva nå? ('The High North – What Now?')
Trondheim, Tapir Academic Press, 2010, 151 p. In Norwegian.
> For orders, contact Akademika Forlag or download information sheet

There has been an increase in political attention to the High North since the turn of the millennium - globally, regionally in northern Europe and in internal Norwegian politics. This book gives an overview of current Norwegian politics in the High North, with an emphasis on the institutionalized collaboration with Russia as well as legal and geopolitical challenges in the Barents Sea region. The authors discuss whether a global race for the Arctic is indeed taking place, and they discuss the limits of what should count as High North politics in internal Norwegian affairs. They also ask some challenging questions about Norwegian financial support to Russia.



Jensen, Øystein and Svein Vigeland Rottem
'The Politics of Security and International Law in Norway's Arctic Waters'
Polar Record, Vol 46, 2010, pp. 75-83.
> Download full-text version (PDF)

Security policy challenges in the high north should be approached both as an insight into the international legal framework on which co-existence in the region rests and as a sober realpolitik analysis. Against this background, the objective of this article is to paint a more balanced picture of security policy options in Norway's Arctic waters, rather than observing contemporary general discourse on the topic might suggest. Management of marine resources, delimitation of unresolved maritime boundaries and relations with Russia in the northern maritime areas are used as examples to substantiate our main thesis which is that dispassionate diplomacy is more likely to resolve disputes than is military confrontation.



Stokke, Olav Schram,
'Protecting the Arctic Environment: The Interplay of Global and Regional Regimes'
The Yearbook of Polar Law, Vol 1, 2009, pp. 349-370.
> For more information and orders, see Brill's website

What is the best division of labour between Arctic environmental institutions and the broader institutions whose spatial ambits include but exceed the Arctic? The article examines this question by narrowing in on the interplay of international institutions, especially on how such interplay may influence regime effectiveness. In focus are such salient regional and broader institutions in Arctic environmental governance as the Arctic Council and the global oceans regime based on the United Nations Law of the Sea Convention, and the interplay between regional and global regimes in five areas of Arctic environmental governance: climate change, inflows of hazardous compounds, regional toxics, offshore petroleum activities, and maritime transport. The controversy over the role of Arctic institutions in the overall governance system originates in differing positions on the need for international regulation or on the usefulness of Arctic-level governance as compared to other levels. Functional interdependencies as well as legal and political realities mean that the problem-solving potential of Arctic institutions varies considerably across issue areas - and that point calls into question the wisdom of recent proposals for a comprehensive and legally binding treaty for Arctic environmental protection.



Hønneland, Geir
'Cross-Border Cooperation in the North: The Case of Northwest Russia'
In Wilson Rowe, Elana (ed), Russia and the North. Ottawa, University of Ottawa Press, 2009, pp. 35-52.

The Kola Peninsula in the north-western corner of the Russian Federation was one of the most heavily militarized regions of the world a couple of decades ago, and largely closed to foreigners. Still home to the Russian Northern Fleet, it is assumed that the influence of the military and other power institutions is more significant here than elsewhere in Russia, and that this would reduce the potential for international cooperation. However, the region has since the end of the Cold War been drawn into a network of international collaboration of a civilian nature with its Nordic neighbors. This chapter gives a brief overview of the BEAR partnership and the bilateral cooperation between Russia and Norway on fisheries management and environmental protection, including nuclear safety, in the Barents Sea region. The latter section also touches briefly upon multilateral initiatives for nuclear safety on the Kola Peninsula. Towards the end of the chapter the implications of political developments and changing priorities on the Russian side are discussed.



Jørgensen, Anne-Kristin
'Recent Developments in the Russian Fisheries Sector'
In Wilson Rowe, Elana (ed), Russia and the North. Ottawa, University of Ottawa Press, 2009, pp. 87-106.
> For more information and orders, see University of Ottawa Press

In the course of the last decade and a half, the Russian fisheries sector has earned a reputation as being inefficient, criminalized and unreformable. Fundamental disagreements among decision makers on how the sector should be managed have frustrated all attempts to create a stable legal and institutional framework for the fisheries, despite a general consensus that stability and predictability are crucial factors if the current stagnation is to be overcome. In the chapter it is argued that the sector has been caught in a 'vicious cycle of reform': A number of major reorginazations since the early 1990s, aimed at improving the sector's performance, have instead resulted in a gradual loss of valuable expertise. Moreover, the continuous changes in the legal and institutional framework have caused business actors to focus on short-term rather than long-term gains, resulting in, inter alia, a very low investment rate and widespread poaching and overfishing. However, over the last couple of years the Russian political leadership has given increasing attention to the problems in the fisheries sector, and some progress has been made, particularly in the field of law-making.



Moe, Arild and Elana Wilson Rowe
'Northern Offshore Oil and Gas Resources: Policy Challenges and Approaches'
In Wilson Rowe, Elana (ed), Russia and the North. Ottawa, University of Ottawa Press, 2009, pp. 107-128.
> For more information and orders, see University of Ottawa Press

The aim of this chapter is to assess the place of offshore petroleum development in the context of overall Russian energy priorities and to examine the evolution of offshore policy and strategy at both the federal and company (Gazprom and Rosneft) levels. The chapter first reviews some key developments in Russian energy policy since 2005 before examining Russian governmental offshore policy development. The offshore strategies of the two companies likely to play a prominent role in Russian offshore development, Rosneft and Gazprom, as well as the interactions thus far between these two companies are then outlined. In tracing the often troubled and halting evolution of federal policy and practice, the question of the extent to which the strategic importance assigned to offshore petroleum reserves is translating into coordinated, strategic action and long-term policy thinking is raised and discussed in the concluding section.



Rottem, Svein Vigeland
Hva forsvarer Norge? Det norske forsvarets møte med en ny virkelighet ('What is Norway Defending? The Norwegian Defence'e Encounter With a New Reality')
Doctoral dissertation, Department of Political Science, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Tromsø. Tromsø, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Tromsø, 2009, 193 p.
> Read related FNI news release

The dissertation is mainly empirically based, and seeks to understand Norwegian defence and security policies in the period 1999-2006. This was a period when the Norwegian defence was re-dimensioned for a new reality and where we witnessed its transformation from a mobilization-based defence into a relatively proactive Norwegian military. The dissertation analyzes three overarching approaches to recent Norwegian defence and security policies: Defence of ideals, (NATO) alliance obligations and Defence of territorial sovereignty and sovereign rights.



Offerdal, Kristine
'The European Arctic in US Foreign Energy Policy: The Case of the Norwegian High North'
Polar Record, Vol 45, 2009, pp. 59-72.
> Download full-text version (PDF) or access it here on the website of the copyright holder Cambridge University Press (subscribers only)

The article examines how US policy makers relate ot the European Arctic as an oil and gas region. The "high north" is defined as the Norwegian and Russian sectors of the Barents Sea. The Norwegian assumption that northern oil and gas is of interest to the international community is tested by analysing and explaining the character of the US approach, with an assessment of whether Norway has succeeded in influencing how the USA views the high north as an energy region. Norway has managed to raise the awareness of the high north as an energy region in Washington, but the interest in the topic has been moderate. Moreover, Norwegian policy makers in the first phase of the high north initiative have misinterpreted US officials' definition of the situation in which Washington's foreign energy policy is developed. Ironically, Norway's "exemplary" energy policy has led to less response than was initially expected, whereas Russia seems to be of significantly greater interest for the USA. With its relatively small resource potential, straightforward investment climate and unclear hight north strategy, Norway and its high north do not stand out as very interesting to the USA, which tends to direct more attention to cases in which its oil and gas companies work under more uncertain investment framework conditions in regions with huge energy resources.



Aasjord, Bente and Geir Hønneland
'Hvem kan telle "den fisk under vann"? Kunnskapsstrid i russisk havforskning' ('Who Can Count "the Fish under Water"? Knowledge Dispute in Russian Ocean Research')
Nordisk Østforum, Vol 22, No 4, 2008, pp. 289-312. In Norwegian.
> Download full-text PDF version (provided by NUPI)

The Russian federal ocean research institute VNIRO has recently introduced new models for estimation of fish stocks. Among these are the so-called GIS and Synoptical methods, which both indicate a significantly larger amount of Northeast Atlantic cod than the current assessments by the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES). While ICES’ methods are based on scientific surveys, the new Russian methods build on catch data from the fishing fleet. So far, ICES has not found the scientific basis of the proposed alternatives strong enough to reject the current method. This scepticism is shared by the leading Norwegian and Russian scientific institutes involved in the assessment of the Barents Sea cod. The article discusses three possible driving forces behind the Russian promotion of the new methods. First, there are knowledge-based driving forces: There are obvious margins of error in ICES’ current methods, and the new Russian methods offer an alternative approach. Second, there are political ones: ICES has introduced the precautionary approach to tackle the scientific uncertainty to the benefit of the fish stocks, but this approach seems to enjoy little legitimacy in Russian fisheries circles, being perceived as introduced by the West to support specific Western interests. Third, there are economically based explanations: There are obvious incentives for Russian fishers to give priority to short-term gain, and actors in the Russian fisheries bureaucracy likewise have incentives to support this strategy.



Rowe, Lars
'Det brysomme nikkelverket' ('The Troublesome Nickel Plant')
Fortid, Vol 5, No 4, 2008, pp. 23-28. In Norwegian.
> Download entire journal (PDF)

When the Norwegian-Soviet Environmental Commision was established in 1988, one immediate concern was the pollution stemming from the nickel plant in Pechenga in Murmansk county, Northwest Russia. Although situated on the Russian side of the border, the pollution from this industry has been labelled "Norway's biggest environmental problem". Several projects, under the auspices of the commission, have since been developed to limit the pollution - none of which succeded. This article describes three comprehensive programmes for limitation of the pollution, and discusses why none of them were brought to fruition. It also briefly describes some differences in the Russian and Norwegian approach to environmental issues.



Moe, Arild
'The Russian Barents Sea: Openings for Norway?'
In Gottemoeller, R. and R. Tamnes (eds), High North: High Stakes. Bergen, Fagbokforlaget, 2008, pp. 75-85.
> For more information and orders, see Fagbokforlaget



Hønneland, Geir and Lars Rowe
Fra svarte skyer til helleristninger: Norsk-russisk miljøvernsamarbeid gjennom 20 år ('From Dark Skies to Rock Carvings: 20 Years of Norwegian-Russian Environmental Cooperation')
Trondheim, Tapir Academic Press, 2008, 186 p. In Norwegian.
> For orders, contact Akademika Forlag
> Read related FNI news release



Offerdal, Kristine
'Det norske nordområdeinitiativet og USA: Utenriks- eller energipolitikk?' ('The Norwegian High North Initiative and USA: Foreign or Energy Policy?')
Internasjonal Politikk, Vol 66, Nos 2-3, 2008, pp. 349-372. In Norwegian.
> Download full-text PDF version (provided by NUPI)



Rottem, Svein Vigeland, Geir Hønneland and Leif Christian Jensen
Småstat og energistormakt: Norges sikkerhetspolitiske rolle i nord ('Small State and Energy Great Power: Norway's Security-Policy Role in the High North')
Bergen, Fagbokforlaget, 2008, 136 p. In Norwegian.
> For orders, contact Fagbokforlaget



Hønneland, Geir
'Kooperation an der Barentssee. Umweltschutz zwischen Russland und Norwegen' ('Cooperation on the Barents Sea: Environmental Protection between Russia and Norway')
In 'Grünbuch. Politische Ökologie im Osten Europas', Osteuropa, Vol 58, Nos 4-5, 2008, pp. 447-458. In German.
> Download full-text PDF version



Rottem, Svein Vigeland
'The Ambivalent Ally: Norway in the New NATO'
Contemporary Security Policy, Vol 28, No 3, 2007, pp. 619-638.
> Download full-text post-print version (PDF) or access the definitive version here (subscribers only)



Skedsmo, Pål
'Demokratisering og miljøkamp på Kolahalvøya' ('Democratisation and Environmentalism on the Kola Peninsula')
Norsk Antropologisk Tidsskrift, Vol 18, No 3-4, 2007, pp. 241-252. In Norwegian.
> Download full-text PDF version



Hønneland, Geir and Leif Christian Jensen
Den nye nordområdepolitikken: Barentsbilder etter årtusenskiftet ('The New Norwegian Politics in the High North: Barents Images after the Turn of the Millennium')
Bergen, Fagbokforlaget, 2008, 177 p. In Norwegian.
> Read related FNI news release
> Read book review (in UD-posten No 1, 2008, in Norwegian)
> For orders, contact Fagbokforlaget



Stokke, Olav Schram
Nordic Council of Ministers' Arctic Co-operation 2003-2005: An Evaluation /
Nordisk Ministerråds Arktiske samarbeid 2003-2005 En evaluering

ANP report # 714 (English) and 713 (Norwegian). Copenhagen, Nordic Council of Ministers, 2007. 94 p. In Norwegian and English.

The Nordic Council of Ministers (NCM) Arctic Co-operation Programme 2003-05 is thematically and geographically inclusive. Among the three main co-operation areas, projects on sustainable development have received roughly twice as much as have each of those on indigenous issues and welfare. All priority areas except Children and Young Adults have been in focus in two or more relatively large project activities. The project activities examined more closely in this study have been competently and seriously implemented. Substantial NCM allocations have supported cross-national competence-building and network development that are often difficult to finance from other sources. The complementarity involved here is valuable, especially if measures are taken within such projects to enhance the likelihood that new insights and networks can serve to generate lasting impacts. The procedure for selecting among project proposals under the Arctic Co-operation Programme, based largely on the Nordic Senior Arctic Officials as members of the NCM Arctic Expert Committee (AEC), works particularly well for proposals linked to circumpolar endeavours under the Arctic Council. It is not well adapted to evaluate research proposals unless those proposals attend directly to recognized policy priorities pursued by AEC members. Sectoral expertise is brought into the evaluation process, especially at national levels. The report makes a number of recommendations with a view to improving intra-NCM coordination on Arctic cooperation, evaluation of project proposals, strategic planning, dissemination of results, and profiling of the NCM in Arctic affairs.



Kryukov, Valery and Arild Moe
'Russia's Oil Industry: Risk Aversion in a Risk-Prone Environment'
Eurasian Geography and Economics, Vol 48, No 3, 2007, pp. 341-357.
> Access the full-text version here (subscribers only)



Jensen, Leif Christian
'Petroleum Discourse in the European Arctic: The Norwegian Case'
Polar Record, Vol 43, No 3, 2007, pp. 247-254.
> Download full-text version (PDF) or access it here on the website of the copyright holder Cambridge University Press (subscribers only)



Hønneland, Geir
'Norway and Russia in the Barents Sea: Cooperation and Conflict in Fisheries Management'
Russian Analytical Digest, No 20, 2007, pp. 9-11.
> Download entire journal



Rottem, Svein Vigeland
'Forsvaret i nord – avskrekking og beroligelse' ('Defence Policy in the High North - Deterrence and Reassurance')
Tidsskrift for samfunnsforskning, Vol 48, No 1, 2007, pp. 63-91. In Norwegian.
> Download full-text PDF version



Hønneland, Geir, Jørgen Holten Jørgensen and Arild Moe
'Miljøpersepsjoner i Nordvest-Russland: Problemoppfatninger knyttet til petroleumsutbygging i Barentshavet' ('Environmental Perceptions in North-Western Russia: Perspectives on Petroleum Development in the Barents Sea')
Internasjonal Politikk, Vol 65, No 1, 2007, pp. 7-22. In Norwegian.
> Download full-text PDF version (provided by NUPI)



Rowe, Lars and Geir Hønneland
Russlandsbilder: Nye debattinnlegg om naboskap i nordområdene ('Images of Russia: New Contributions to the Debate about Neighbourhood in the High North')
Bergen, Fagbokforlaget, 2007, 114 p. In Norwegian.
> Read related FNI news release (in Norwegian)
> For more information and orders, contact Fagbokforlaget



Hønneland, Geir and Jørgen Holten Jørgensen
Moderne russisk politik: En indføring i Ruslands politiske system ('Contemporary Russian Politics: An Introduction to Russia's Political System')
Copenhagen, Forlaget Samfundslitteratur, 2007, 168 p. In Danish.
> For more information and orders, contact Forlaget Samfundslitteratur

The book is a revised and updated version of the title published in Norwegian in 2006.



Stokke, Olav Schram and Geir Hønneland (eds)
International Cooperation and Arctic Governance: Regime Effectiveness and Northern Region Building
London, Routledge, 2007, 196 p. (Hardback)
London, Routledge, 2010, 196 p. (Paperback)
> Read related FNI news release
> For more information and orders, see Routledge's website: Hardback / Paperback



Rowe, Lars and Geir Hønneland
'Communicable Disease Control'
In Stokke, Olav Schram and Geir Hønneland (eds), International Cooperation and Arctic Governance: Regime Effectiveness and Northern Region Building. London, Routledge, 2007, pp. 50-78.
> See Routledge for more information about the book



Stokke, Olav Schram, Geir Hønneland and Peter Johan Schei
'Pollution and Conservation'
In Stokke, Olav Schram and Geir Hønneland (eds), International Cooperation and Arctic Governance: Regime Effectiveness and Northern Region Building. London, Routledge, 2007, pp. 78-111.
> See Routledge for more information about the book



Stokke, Olav Schram
'International Institutions and Arctic Governance'
In Stokke, Olav Schram and Geir Hønneland (eds), International Cooperation and Arctic Governance: Regime Effectiveness and Northern Region Building. London, Routledge, 2007, pp. 164-185.
> See Routledge for more information about the book



Moe, Arild
'Sjtokman-beslutningen: Forklaringer og implikasjoner' ('The Shtokman Decision: Explanations and Implications')
Nordisk Østforum, Vol 20, No 4, 2006, pp. 389-403. In Norwegian.
> Download full-text version (PDF)



Jensen, Leif Christian
'Boring som miljøargument? Norske petroleumsdiskurser i nordområdene ('Drilling for the Environment? Norwegian Petroleum Discourses in the High North').
Internasjonal Politikk, Vol 64, No 3, 2006, pp. 295-309. In Norwegian.
> Download full-text PDF version (provided by NUPI)



Hønneland, Geir
'Power Institutions and International Collaboration on the Kola Peninsula'
The Journal of Power Institutions In Post-Soviet Societies, Issue 4/5, 2006, online edition.
> Full-text version available at PIPSS' website



Hønneland, Geir and Jørgen Holten Jørgensen
Moderne russisk politikk: En innføring i Russlands politiske system ('Contemporary Russian Politics: An Introduction to Russia's Political System')
Bergen, Fagbokforlaget, 2006, 168 p. In Norwegian.
> For more information and orders, contact Fagbokforlaget



Hønneland, Geir and Jørgen Holten Jørgensen
'Administrativ reform i Russland' ('Administrative Reform in Russia')
Nordisk Østforum, Vol 20, No 1, 2006, pp. 45-62. In Norwegian.
> Download full-text PDF version (provided by NUPI)



Rowe, Lars and Bernd Rechel
'Fighting Tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS in Northeast Europe: Sustainable Collaboration or Political Rhetoric?'
The European Journal of Public Health, Vol 16, No 6, 2006, pp. 609-614.
> Full-text version available at Oxford Journals' website



Jørgensen, Jørgen Holten and Geir Hønneland
'Implementing Global Nature Protection Regimes in Russia'
Journal of International Wildlife Law and Policy, Vol 9, No 1, 2006, pp. 33-53.
> Download full-text post-print version (PDF) or access the definitive version here (subscribers only)



Hønneland, Geir
'Samarbeidet med Russland - erfaringer og utgangspunkt' ('The Cooperation with Russia - Experiences and Point of Departure')
Ottar, Vol 52, No 2, 2006, pp. 57-62. In Norwegian.
> Download full-text version (PDF)



Blakkisrud, Helge and Geir Hønneland (eds)
Tackling Space: Federal Politics and the Russian North
Lanham (MD) and Oxford, University Press of America, 2005, 222 p.

The North is intrinsic to the way most outsiders imagine Russia: snow, long winters and the endless Siberian forests. Indeed, about 70 percent of the country’s territory is defined as belonging to the North. These inhospitable tracts contain immense natural wealth, and large cities were constructed in Soviet times to supply the labor force for extraction industries. Since the fall of the Soviet Union, the Russian North has become both a burden and an asset. It is overdeveloped, with its now obsolete mono-industrial towns, and underdeveloped, with its still largely untapped natural resources. Today’s Russian authorities face the challenge of developing a new Northern policy adapted to the realities of the 21st century. With its expert contributions from political science, economics, geography, and anthropology, this book represents the first comprehensive study in the Western literature of federal politics towards the Russian North. In addition to mapping the scope for federal governance, it covers such important issue areas as infrastructure development, natural resource management, environmental affairs, and policies towards indigenous peoples.



Hønneland, Geir
Russia and the West: Environmental Co-operation and Conflict
London and New York, Routledge, 2003, 208 p. (Hardback)
London and New York, Routledge, 2011, 208 p. (Paperback)
> For more information and orders, see Routledge's website: Hardback / Paperback
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Fridtjof Nansen Institute
P.O. Box 326, 1326 Lysaker, Norway. Tel: (+47) 67111900 / E-mail: post (+@fni.no)