Key actors in the international climate regime have been accumulating experiences from past and ongoing climate negotiations – from the workings of the Kyoto mechanisms, as well as from the implementation of climate policies. The objective of this project was to bring together the lessons that could be learned from the Kyoto Protocol implementation, and to discuss the consequences for the negotiating positions of key actors, for Norway's potential role in the negotiation process, and for the feasibility of post-2012 climate agreements.

The project included studies of the following state actors: The United States, EU, China and G-77. In addition, non-state actors such as energy companies and environmental NGOs were also studied. The aim of the case studies was to shed light on how implementation of climate policies would affect the future of the international regime. The study also analysed the implications for Norway.

The project addressed the following research questions:

  • To what extent, and how, are implementation experiences by states and non-state actors likely to influence key actors' positions in the upcoming negotiations on a continuation of the international climate regime after 2012?
  • How can changes in negotiation positions among key actors affect the probabilities of (effective) post-2012 climate agreements?
  • How can technology programs and new commitment types facilitate inclusion of more countries in the next commitment period?
  • What is the potential for Norway to play a leadership or mediator role in the upcoming negotiation rounds, and what are the most promising approaches?

The project was interdisciplinary, applying insights from political science, economics, sociology, engineering, and sinology. It was a strategic co-operation project between FNI and the Center for International Climate and Environmental Research – Oslo (CICERO).

Project period: 2004-2009



  • The Research Council of Norway