In Oberthür, S. and G.K. Rosendal (eds), Global Governance of Genetic Resources: Access and Benefit Sharing after the Nagoya Protocol. London/New York, Routledge, 2014, pp. 231-250.
Overall, the NP has brought incremental changes to global ABS governance trying to re-balance somewhat the provider-user equation with uncertain prospect of success. Much will depend on implementation by parties, especially user countries, and the further development of the broader governance system at the international level. Both the NP and other central institutions engaged in global ABS governance constitute dynamic sectoral legal systems that are typical of global environmental governance and are set to develop further. Next to national implementation of the NP, future international discussions under the Protocol (including on a Global Multilateral Benefit-sharing Mechanism, compliance, and other matters) and in relevant other institutions (FAO, UNCLOS, WTO, WIPO and others) may thus be of crucial importance for the effectiveness of global ABS governance.