In Jørgen Wettestand and Lars H. Gulbrandsen (eds), The Evolution of Carbon Markets: Design and Diffusion. London, Routledge, 2018, pp. 166-179.
This chapter examines emissions trading in Kazakhstan, a big country and significant emitter, with an ETS that was put in place very quickly, due to high-level political pressure. However, the fast-tracked nature of the implementation process did not provide sufficient notification to the donor community to mobilize much-needed technical support until the pilot phase was completed. Implementation of a fully operational system has been postponed, because of industry resistance and unresolved legal and technical issues. Among other things, the rush did not allow time for establishing a proper MRV system.