In G. Sjöstedt and A.M. Penetrante (eds), Climate Change Negotiations A Guide to Resolving Disputes and Facilitating Multilateral Cooperation, London/New York, Earthscan, 2013, pp. 148-169
Leadership floruished in the agenda setting stage and there was plenty of room for individual instumental and intellectual leadsership in the absence of states on the scene. In the later stages of agenda setting small 'green' states also entered the scene, but opponents to strong action was also about to get organized. Available evidence suggest that traditional state bargaining was prominent through the stage of negotiation before the adoption of the Kyoto Protocol. Still effective instrumental leadership by key officials was also conducted, but interaction with the important state players was necessary. Overall, due to the very malign nature of this issue area, leadership has been faily modest and its significance has often been quite short-lived.