Norway’s implementation of the EU climate and energy package: Europeanization or cherry-picking?

FNI Report 7/2014. Lysaker, FNI, 2014, 85 p.

Although not an EU member state, Norway has been part of the EU’s internal market since 1994 through the EEA Agreement. As a result, Norway has implemented EU climate and energy legislation. While not bound by the headline climate and energy targets for 2020, Norway has had to implement the EEA-relevant legal acts stemming from the EU’s climate and energy package. The package was based on synergy effects and side-payments that were challenging to reproduce in Norway, whose situation differed radically from an EU concerned about import dependency and low shares of renewable energy. Norwegian implementation varied across the different package components. This report enquires into the causes behind the mixed implementation performance, and analyses the long-term impact of the package on Norwegian climate and energy policy.