In Kanie, N., S. Andresen and P.M. Haas (eds), Improving Global Environmental Governance: Best Practices for Architecture and Agency. London/New York, Routledge, 2014, pp. 175-196.
The role of various actors and actor combinations are discussed in the various stages set out in the introductory chapter of the book.In the agenda setting stage non-state actors as well as key indfividuals played a key role- However as these are mostly activists of various kinds they contributed to downplay the difficulty of the issue. The US played the key role in setting up the IPCC. When negotiations started most non-state actors were marginalized and the process was firmly in the control of the states. The North-South divide has been the most important reason for lacking progress, The compliance regime has also proved to be rather weak in practice. Both states and non-state actors in various combinations have played a role in implementing commitments. Altgough most key states have introduced a number of measures and non-state actors have also been active this has not been enough to stop the rising emissions. The main drivers in the development towards rising emisisons are economic growth, demography and general forces. Climate based measures initiated has not been enough to halt this development, Thibgs might have been different with non-state actors playing a more significant role but this has proved impossible in practice.