Conclusion: Lessons from Pluralistic Governance

In Kanie, N., S. Andresen and P.M. Haas (eds), Improving Global Environmental Governance: Best Practices for Architecture and Agency. London/New York, Routledge, 2014, pp. 196-220.

This chapter sets out to summarize and discuss the findings from the empirical cases in light of the theoretical framework set out in chapter 1 on actor configurations in various governance stages. We first go through the lessons learned from all the stages discussed and then look at the issue of the dynamics of actor configuration, linkages between components and networks and configuration of actor groups. A few general observations can be made. IOs have an important role in managing scientific networks and linking them up with the inter-governmental processes. More importantly, states are still the main players in the game, most decisive for what comes out of these processes. Third, appropriate actor configuration is indespenisble for the best practice to be achieved. We also provide some more optimistic speculationsn as to how the gridlock on climate governance can be escaped.