A wind of change in Norway: Explaining shifts in municipal stances on wind power by policy feedback and energy justice

Energy Research & Social Science, Vol 104, No 103231, 2023. DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.erss.2023.103231

Despite the growing need for renewable electricity, wind power development has not proceeded smoothly. This study examines the shifting stances on wind power development in Norwegian municipalities. By developing and applying a combined policy feedback and energy justice framework, we investigate how experiences from earlier wind power policies have affected the positions of municipal councils. Through a systematic text analysis of municipal council responses to a national consultation on the siting of wind power installations, combined with data from interviews in selected municipalities, we show how considerations of distributional, procedural and recognition justice, stemming from experiences with wind power policies and developments, have moulded the shift in municipal council stances. Our analysis makes clear the essential role of perceptions of justice in connection with strategies for raising acceptance of wind power development as part of the ongoing energy transition.