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Political decisions must not only be adopted – they must also be put into practice. What happens in that phase further down the road, in the nitty-gritty of implementation?
These questions are fundamental to INC, a collaborative and interdisciplinary research project focusing on how EU energy market laws are implemented. While implementation might be thought to be a purely technical process, putting laws into practice often requires making decisions. The devil is in the detail, and political conflicts, negotiations and operational decision-making may continue long after a law has been passed.
Specifically, the INC project investigates the implementation of ‘network codes and guidelines’. These are detailed rules on electricity trade intended to improve and harmonize the EU’s internal energy market. They could have far-reaching consequences for how we use our electricity network, but so far, they have largely escaped scholarly attention. This project asks several fundamental questions:
- how have network codes and guidelines been designed and outlined at the general level?
- how have they been further specified in various ‘terms, conditions and methods’ (TCMs) across Europe?
- how have they actually worked in practice?
- and, most importantly, have they been able to deliver on the fundamental goal of increasing the efficiency of electricity trade within Europe?
An international team of scholars, led by the Fridtjof Nansen Institute, will address these issues, working in close collaboration with industry experts, user partners and other relevant stakeholders. The goal is to build relevant knowledge and capacity for user partners and policymakers. The project also has a strong theoretical foundation: general research on EU implementation has focused on whether EU member states comply with EU laws – not on how such implementation occurs – or why member states implement the same EU law in different ways. The INC project will delve deeply into these dynamics.
Project period: 2020-2024
FNI PROJECT LEADER
- Research Council of Norway (ENERGIX Programme)
- Energy Norway
- Ministry of Petroleum and Energy
- Hafslund E-CO Vannkraft
- Skagerak Kraft
- Nord Pool
PEER-REVIEWED ARTICLES AND CHAPTERS
In Benjamin Leruth, Stefan Gänzle and Jarle Trondal (eds), The Routledge Handbook of Differentiation in the European Union. Routledge, 2022, pp. 289-309.
ICER Chronicle, Edition 13 Winter 2022–Spring 2023.
Aftenposten, January 25, 2023. In Norwegian.
Aftenposten, October 28, 2022. In Norwegian.
INC Research Brief # 4. Fridtjof Nansen Institute, September 2022, 14 p.
INC Research Brief # 3. Fridtjof Nansen Institute, September 2022, 11 p.
INC Research Brief # 2. Fridtjof Nansen Institute, September 2022, 10 p.
INC Research Brief # 1. Fridtjof Nansen Institute, September 2022, 14 p.
Aftenposten, September 13, 2022. In Norwegian.
Forskersonen.no, September 11, 2022. In Norwegian.
Aftenposten, September 5, 2022. In Norwegian.
Forskning.no, September 3, 2022. In Norwegian.
Forskning.no, August 27, 2022. In Norwegian.
FNI Report 1/2022. Lysaker, FNI, 2022, 30 p. In Norwegian
Dagens næringsliv, 27 December 2021. In Norwegian.
Dagens næringsliv, 30 November 2021. In Norwegian.
Forskning.no, 26 March 2021. In Norwegian.
Europower Energi, 14.08.2020. In Norwegian.
Dagens Næringsliv, 13.08.2020. In Norwegian.
RELATED RESEARCH AREA(S)
- Regulating the European electricity market
- Upcoming workshop in Florence: Electricity rules – towards unity or diversity?
- Vel gjennomført rapportlansering: Norge i EUs energimarked
- Norge i EUs energimarked
- Call for papers: Involving Stakeholders in Regulation
- Call for papers
- String of new research projects for FNI
- Svalbard, EU and the green transition: New research projects awarded to FNI
EU vil jevne ut strømprisene (The EU will level out electricity prices)
Klassekampen, January 25, 2023. In Norwegian.
Knuser håp om egen strømpris for utenlandskabler: – Ikke veldig lovlig (Crushes hopes of a separate electricity price for interconnectors)
Nationen, January 13, 2023. In Norwegian.
Hvilke grenser setter egentlig EØS for Norge? (What limits does the EEA set for Norway?)
Jusspodden, October 13, 2022. In Norwegian.
Derfor begrenser EØS strømstøtten til norske bedrifter (Why EEA limits electricity support to Norwegian companies)
Nationen, September 21, 2022. In Norwegian.
Disse landene rammes av Putins energikrig (Putin's war on European energy security)
VG, September 9, 2022. In Norwegian.
Vurderer en spansk en (In Spain and Portugal a price cap has led to lower electricity prices. EU might follow)
Klassekampen, September 6, 2022. In Norwegian.
Tyskland er hardt rammet av energikrisen. Årsakene går mange tiår tilbake (Germany is hit hard by the energy crisis. The reasons go back many decades)
Aftenposten, September 1, 2022. In Norwegian.
Leyen er lei høye priser (Leyen tired of high energy prices)
Klassekampen, August 31, 2022. In Norwegian.
Flere i EU ønsker makspris på gass (EU countries mull energy price cap)
Klassekampen, August 30, 2022. In Norwegian.
EU vil ha tak på gasspris (The EU wants a cap on gas prices)
Klassekampen, July 20, 2022. In Norwegian.
Vil droppe olje: - Treffer hardt (EU ban on Russian oil)
Børsen Dagbladet, May 4, 2022. In Norwegian.
Frykter priseksplosjon: - Veldig problematisk (How EU's proposed ban of import of Russian oil can affect Norway)
Børsen Dagbladet, May 4, 2022. In Norwegian.
Uvanlig tørke vil påvirke strømprisene fremover (Unusual drought will affect electricity prices)
Vårt land, May 4, 2022. In Norwegian.
Tyskland snur om olje (Germany ready to support EU ban on Russian oil)
Klassekampen, May 3, 2022. In Norwegian.
Statkraft: Norsk spagat om EU-regler truer kraftproduksjon (Statkraft: Norwegian conflict over EU rules threatens power production)
Montel, April 28, 2022. In Norwegian.
Er det å «strupe kablene» til utlandet en løsning på høye strømpriser? Eksperten forklarer (Is "choking the cables" abroad a solution to high electricity prices?)
Vårt land, 29 January 2022. In Norwegian.
Strømpris-vanviddet: Så smalt det til slutt fra Senterpartiet (Mad electricity prices and the Center Party)
ABC Nyheter, 3 January 2022. In Norwegian.
Tror på lykkelig utgang av Statnett-SvK-strid (Believes in happy outcome for Statnett-SvK strife)
Montel, 25 November 2021. In Norwegian.
Experts dismiss call to reduce Norway power exports
Montelnews.com, 22 September 2021.
Eksperter tror EØS kan hindre struping av krafteksport (Experts believe the EEA may prevent throttling of power export)
Montel news, 21 September 2021. In Norwegian.
Truer verken strømpriser eller arbeidsplasser (ACER will not threathen electricity prices or jobs)
Dagbladet, 13 April 2021. In Norwegian.
– Acer-saken kan forsinke Ren Energi-pakken i Norge
Montel News, 05 March 2021. In Norwegian.